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A HISTORY OF THE FIRST HALF-CENTURY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 1863-1913

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A HISTORY OF THE FIRST HALF-CENTURY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ~ ~~_J ~ ~ ~ _, WASHINGTON 1913 44 :, :~` .~ , ., r

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hEF'T TK WEST ~ ~ ; .. CARNEGIE ~ ~ ~ ri r Jli 3~. ~ 'A ~ ~ ~ '4 ~ ~r id, ,~ ~ ~ 5 ~ 7/ ~ C5e Gore More Threes BALTIMORE, lo., O. S. A.

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COMMITTEE ON THE PREPARATION OF THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL VOLUME ARNOLD HAGUE, CHAIRMAN RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN WILLIAM TRELEASE WILLIAM T. COUNCILMAN CHARLES D. WALCOTT PREPARED AND EDITED BY FREDERICK W. TRUE Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution

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PREFACE MANY of the members of the National Academy of Sciences, especially those elected in recent years, have frequently expressed the wish to become acquainted with its early history, particularly that of the formative period of the organization, and also with the work it has done in behalf of the Government. As the information on these subjects which can be gathered from the early publications of the Academy is neither in connected form nor very extensive, it was decided in agog to have prepared for publication, in connection with the semi-cen- tennial celebration of the Academy, a volume containing as com- plete an historical summary as could be brought together in the time available. A committee was appointed to take charge of the matter, and in the summer of Go the services of Dr. Frederick W. True were secured as editor. Besides consulting the early records of the Academy, it was necessary to seek information from outside sources. The work of preparing this history, which has been arduous, is highly appreci- ated by the members of the committee in charge, who have realized the varied and baffling nature of the undertaking and desire to express their approval of its accomplishment. It is be- lieved that the information assembled in this volume will afford a good insight into the nature of the activities of the Academy. The bibliographical references which it contains will enable those who desire more detailed knowledge to find it in the original documents. As the Academy has established a series of publications known as the Biographical Memoirs, containing records of the lives and works of its members, it has not been thought necessary to attempt the preparation of new biographical sketches, but the volume con- tains brief notices of the lives of the incorporators, or original V11

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. V111 PREFACE members, drawn chiefly from those included in the series men- tioned. It was hoped that a list of the scientific communications pre- sented to the Academy during the half century, some two thou- san(1 in number, with references to the places of publications, might be added to the volume, but it was found impossible in the time available to compile the necessary data. The comple- tion of this undertaking is therefore necessarily deferred until later date. ARNOLD HAGUE, Chairman of Committee. JANUARY I 0, I 9 I 3 .

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. CHAPTER I THE FOUNDING OF THE ACADEMY........................................ CHAPTER II THE ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY........ CHAPTER III BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE INCORPORATORS. . . PAGE . .... X1 25 I03 CHAPTER IV THE ACADEMY AS THE SCIENTIFIC ADVISER OF THE GOVERNMENT 20I APPENDICES I. LIST OF OFFICERS..................................................... II. LIST OF MEMBERS AND FOREIGN ASSOCIATES.............................. III. LIST OF MEDALISTS................................................... IV. LIST OF REPORTS OF COMMITTEES APPOINTED ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNMENT V. ACT OF INCORPORATION, CONSTITUTION, AMENDMENTS AND RULES........... VI. TEXT OF BEQUESTS AND TRUSTS.............................................. VII. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS...................................................... VIII. LIST OF MEETINGS................................................. 1X / ~; 335 337 346 348 35I 36I 374 385