Click for next page ( 26


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 25
CHAPTER II THE ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY IN chronicling the history of the Academy it has seemed de- sirable to divide the half century into periods of ten years each, although in some instances, for the sake of clearness, the whole story of a transaction is given in one place without regard to years. I863-~867 The first meeting of the Academy held in New York on April 22, ~863, was a meeting for organization. It was devoted, ~ ~ ~ as already shown, to the consideration ot a constitution and by-laws, the election of officers and a council, and the appoint- ment of certain committees. In accordance with the provisions of the constitution, the members arranged themselves in two 1~PC (~N m~[h~n1~;~R and nhV8iCS. and (b) natural history; and a chairman and secretary were elected tor each class. Five TV_ V/ ^~ ~ r-~J~~~~~ ~ v-, , ~ it- - _'A ~ ~ ~ J sections were included under each class. l he assignment ot members to these sections seems not to have been thoroughly carried out until the meeting of August, ~864, and eveh at that date the names of several members do not appear under any section. The names of the sections and the number of members enrolled under each, which are matters of considerable interest, are shown in the following table: . , . . CLASS OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS Number of Members 6 . . 6 9 6 Sect. I. Mathematics ............. Sect. 2. Physics e ~ Sect. 3. Astronomy, Geography and Geodesy.. Sect. 4. Mechanics Sect. 5. Chemistry i So i

OCR for page 25
~6 NATIONAL ACADENIY OF SCIENCES CLASS OF NATURAL HISTORY Number of M embers Sect. I. Mineralogy and Geology 6 Sect. 2. Zoology 5 Sect. 3. Botany I Sect. 4. Anatomy and Physiology ~ Sect. 5. Ethnology 0 Total . . . I4 44 It will be seen from the foregoing figures that the number of members who joined the sections concerned with the physical sciences was twice as large as the number which joined those concerned with the natural sciences. This was due to the fact that the Academy movement was promoted by the physicists rather than the naturalists. As indicated by certain remarks of Professor B ache and Senator Wilson, the original plan seems to have contemplated the formation of an academy of physical sciences. It is interesting to notice that the paleontologists aligned them- selves with geology rather than zoology. The section of botany had but one member, and that of ethnology none. Half the membership, in so far as it was assigned to sections, assembled in the first three physical sections, mathematics, physics, and astronomy (with geography and geology). The first scientific session of the Academy, following the meeting for organization, was held in Washington on January 4-to 9, ~864, in the Capitol, in the rooms of the Pacific Rail- road Committee of the Senate which were placed at the disposal -A ~ ~ ngures that O , ~ .1 ~ 1 T ,1 ' , 1 1~ 1~ of the Academy. In the interval between tnese two meetings. _ _ _ _ __ J ~ . . . 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 _ however, SIX committees on technical suo~ects nag Deen ap- pointed. These reported at the January meeting, and in three cases the reports were adopted and the committees discharged, while in the other three the committees were continued. Four additional committees were appointed before the close of ~864. The work of these committees and of others appointed sub- sequently forms the sub ject of a later chapter. The importance of the scientific committees was felt by President Bache, who

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 27 considered that it was largely through their activities that the Academy was to fulfil its functions. In his report for ~86~ he remarks: " The first trial of the working of the Academy was to be made, and the first effort was to be through the action of a Committee on Weights and Measures, for the appointment of which, to consider the subject of the ' Uniformity of Weights, Measures and Coins, considered in relation to domestic and inter- national commerce,' the Academy had been addressed before its adjournment by the Hon. Secretary of the Treasury, S. P. Chase. " It was obvious that the only effective and prompt mode of action by members scattered over the United States, as were the fifty named in the charter, must be through committees. Action must originate with committees, and be perfected by discussion in the general meetings of the Academy, or in the classes or sections. Decisions to be finally pronounced by the entire body." ~ ~ . _ ~ ~ For the first time, the Academy listened to the reading of scientific papers by its members. In the program were in- cluded the names of Agassiz, Alexander, Bache, F. A. P. Barnard, j. A. Barnard, B. A. Gould, Henry, Peirce, Ruther- furd and Strong. The subjects of the ~6 papers that were pre- sented were all connected with the physical sciences, except three by Professor Agassiz (two of which related to fishes and one to individuality among animals3, and one by Stephen Alexander on the forms of icebergs. The preponderance of physical subjects is not surprising, when it is recalled that two- thirds of the membership at this time were enrolled in the class of mathematics and physics. The papers were referred to the Committee on Publication, which was instructed to " take order " for their publication, while the Council was directed to provide the means. The Academy was at this time without funds, except the amounts received from members as dues, and the orders could not, there- fore, be carried out immediately. It was not until ~866 that the first volume of the Memoirs of the Academy was issued, and this contained but two of the ~6 papers read at the first scientific meeting in ~864. It was proposed in ~866 to collect and pub- Annual Report of the President for 1863. Ann. Nat. Acad. Sci. for 1863-4 (I865), p.49. I

OCR for page 25
28 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES fish the minor papers in the Proceedings of the Academy, but this action was never taken, the first issue of the Proceedings having been devoted to the reports and minutes. Besides formally adopting a constitution and by-laws, acting on reports of scientific committees, and listening to scientific communication, the Academy transacted other important busi- ness at the meeting of January, ~864. It elected the first foreign members, or " Foreign Associates," as they were styled in the constitution. The by-laws provided that not more than ten Foreign Associates might be elected at any one meeting, and the Academy proceeded at once to elect this number. This first list comprised Sir Wm. Rowan Hamilton, Karl Ernst Von Baer, Michael Faraday, J. B. Elie de Beaumont, Sir David Brewster, G. A. A. Plana, Robert Bunsen, F. W. A. Argelander, Miche! ChasTes and Henri Miine-Edwards. The Academy had not been in existence six months when it lost one of its original members, Professor Hubbard, one of the youngest of the incorporators, who died on August ~6, ~863, at the age of 46 years. The event was reported at the meeting of January, ~864, and in accordance with the by-laws, Dr. B. A. Gould was appointed to prepare a biographical notice. This notice, the first of the series of biographical sketches published by the Academy, was read at the New Haven meeting, August 5, ~864, and printed in the first annuai.2 In accordance with the by-laws, the death of three eminent scientific men of the country not members of the Academy was announced at the meeting of January, ~864, and three members were appointed to prepare biographical sketches. Only two of the sketches appear to have been presented, however, and the practice was not continued in subsequent years, doubtless on account of the burden which it imposed on the membership, and the lack of funds for printing. Of the second session of the Academy for the year ~864, which was held in New Haven on the sth and 6th of August, little has been recorded, beyond the fact that ten papers were PP- 71-I I2.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 29 read, including the two biographical sketches of non-members airea(ly mentioned. Of the remaining eight papers, all but one related to the physical sciences. The Academy lost three more of its original members dur- ing the year ~864, Edward Hitchcock? who died on February 27, Joseph Gilbert Totten, who died on April 22, and Ben jamin Silliman, Sr., who died on November 24. Biographical notices of them were published in the Annual. The year ~865 was signalized by the publication of the first Annual, a pamphlet of ~12 pages in duodecimo form, which appeared between January I, and February ~3. It contained the Act of Incorporation, the constitution and by-laws, a list of officers, members, foreign associates and committees, 'the first report of the President, and a eulogy of J. S. Hubbard, one of the incorporators. As the Academy was without funds, the expense of printing was met by contributions of individual members, and in accordance with a vote of the Academy Iowan distributed to members of both houses of Congress, and to the heads of departments of the Government.3 Although the eighteenth by-law of the Academy provided that the Annual should be published on the first day of each year, this first number did not appear until the Academy had been in existence nearly two years, and only two additional numbers were issued, dated, respectively, ~866 and ~867. The by-law, or rule, as it was afterwards called, remained in force, however, until ~ 896, when it was finally stricken out.4 The year ~865 was further characterized by the fact that no requests for the investigation of scientific matters were re- cei~red from the Government and no new scientific committees appointed. Thirty-four papers were read at the scientific sessions of this year, or somewhat more than were presented in ~86~. The pro- gram covered a much wider scope than that of the preceding year. While astronomy, physics and mathematics were well repre- 3Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. I, z877, p. 43. 4 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for ~896, p. to. 4

OCR for page 25
So NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES sensed, ten papers on geological subjects were presented, four papers on zoology, two papers relating to anthropology, etc. The Academy lost one of its original members this year, James Melville Gilliss, who died on February 9, 1865. It was also unfortunate as regards the presiding officers, President B ache having been in ill health, and the Vice-President, James Dwight Dana, having been forced to resign on August 23, from the same cause.5 The report to Congress on the operations of the Academy during 1865 was submitted by Professor Henry. As in the preceding year, the Washington meeting of the Academy was held in the Capitol. The August meeting was held at Northampton, Massachusetts. Few details have been recorded regarding either of these meetings. From Llesley's letters we learn that the Northampton session opened with ~~ members present, which number increased to no on the follow- ing day. This session opened on August 23, and closed on the afternoon of the 26th. The division of the membership between) the two classes " Mathematics and Physics " and "Natural History" under- went few changes in ~ 865, but the section of " Ethnology " came into actual existence through the assignment of one member thereto. Advantage was also taken in several sections of a provision of the constitution whereby members assigned to the 5 Professor Dana's reasons for resigning are mentioned in letters written by him to Pro- fessor Baird and Professor Guyot. On December to, z864, he wrote to Professor Baird. "As the time for our January (~865) meeting of the National Academy approaches, I become more and more convinced that I ought not to encounter the labor and fatigue of the occasion. Had I no duties but those of a private in the Academy I should have less fear. But with the cares of President, which involve meetings of council, as well as all business meetings, at least, of the Academy, and much more of an outside nature, I am sure of chants h" 1lnwicP ten r;olr a+~^nr7an^- ~, I. no. .... I should much prefer now to throw up the position; for besides my incapabilities from imperfect health, I should enjoy myself far more if I could have my time and strength to mingle socially with the members present." (The Life~of James Dwight Dana, by D. C. Gilman, 1899, pp. 362, 363.) To Professor Guyot he wrote on February ~4, ~865: " I wish most heartily I were out of the office of Vice-President, and I think I shall take an early opportunity to abdicate. It makes the meetings, now that Bache is unwell, times of great fatigue for me, and of no satisfactory intercourse with friends on the ground. I dislike the duty, and care nothing for the honor of it. You will not be surprised, therefore, if my resignation is handed in not long hence." ~ Op. cit., p. 329.)

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF TINE ACADEMY 3I various sections could be elected honorary members of others. Thus, a member of the section of chemistry was elected to the section of botany, a member of the section of mathematics to the section of astronomy, etc. The year ~866"'found the Academy without presiding officers. The first President, Professor B ache, continued in ill-health and was unable to attend the meetings, and the Vice-President, J. D. Dana, as already mentioned, resigned in August, ~865, from the same cause. The Academy being thus without presid- ing officers, proceeded on January ~5, ~866, to elect Joseph Henry as Vice-President. " On taking the chair, Mr. Henry stated that while he was highly honored by the election, he felt much hesitation in accepting the office, since his duties in con- nection with the Smithsonian Institution were more than sufficient to occupy his attention, and that he could only accept the responsible position with the understanding that he would be permitted to retire as soon as the president should be able to resume his duties, or his place could be filled by another." 6 As the event proved, however, Henry did not retire, but re- mained at the head of the Academy for twelve years. The Academy lost another of its original members, Augustus A. Gould, who died on September ~5, 1866. This year again the Government~sought the advice of the Academy on technical scientific matters and two committees were appointed, one on the improvement of the harbor of San Juan de! Norte, or Greytown, in Nicaragua, and the other on proving and gauging spirits sub jected to duty. Both committees presented reports, which were published in the annual report of the Academy, that relating to the gauging of spirits being voluminous and detailed. Thirty-eight papers were presented for discussion at the trio scientific sessions held in ~866, or a few more than were included in the programs of the preceding yearn The subjects covered a wider range than those of the preceding year. The greatest 6 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for z866, p. I. Sen. Misc. Doc. no. 44, 40th Congress, fist Session. 7 Including three biographical sketches.

OCR for page 25
32 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES number of papers were on astronomy, followed by zoology, physics and geography. The Academy this year for the first time voiced its interest in scientific activities outside its own sphere by passing resolu- tions expressing satisfaction at the action of the Government in authorizing the employment of metric weights and measures, and recommending that the metric system be taught in the public schools, and be made a subject of examination for admis- sion to colleges and universities; and also " that the Academy considered it highly desirable that the discretionary power granted by Congress to the Postmaster-General to use the metrical weights in the post-o~ces be exercised at the earliest convenient day." Another resolution was adopted, commending the generosity of Nathaniel Th aye r, of Boston, in fitting out an expedition to South America under the conduct of Professor Agassiz. stat . r ~ ~ 1 . `m .' . ~ ~ a _ 1 ne summer meeting was again held at 1\1 orthampton, Massa- chusetts. Few details regarding it have been recorded, but it was referred to by one who was present as " a brilliant meeting." An important event of Ache vear ~866 was the publication of tne first volume ot the lVlemo~rs of the Academy. It was in quarto form and comprised 342 pages. The volume contained five articles, three on astronomical subjects, one on the distri- bution of certain diseases in the United States and another on rifled guns. It was distributed through the Smithsonian Insti- tution to ~~ libraries in the United States and z~ in other countries. A second number of the Annual was also published. The events of ~867 were numerous and important. At the opening of the year, in February, the Academy lost its first ,'_ _ ~ _, 1 ~ , ~ 71 ~ ~ r President, Professor B ache. In his report as Vice-President, Professor Henry remarked: " During the past year the Acad- emy has been called upon to mourn the loss of its distinguished president, Alexander Dallas Bache. This eminent savant de- voted his life industriously to the advance of science, and may De saga to nave fallen a martyr to the cause of his country in the hour of its peril." B ache was one of the principal leaders, if ~ 1 . 1 ~ .' . . ..

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 33 not the prime mover, in the formation of the Academy, and his deep interest in its work is indicated by the fact that he bequeathed his estate to the Academy as a fund for the promotion of researches in the natural and physical sciences. His original intention was to place the fund under the control of a board, or, in case the board failed to act, that the trustees of the estate should apply the funds to the purposes specified, un(ler the direction of the American Philosophical Society. Soon after the organization of the National Academy, however? on July ~5, ~863, he added a codicil to his will which reads as follows: " ITEM: MY will is that, upon the death of my wife, all the rest and residue of my estate ~ shall be paid over to and vest in the corporation of the National Academy of Sciences, incorporated by act of Congress, passed the 3d day of March, A. D. ~863, whom I hereby appoint trustees in the place of my said executors under the fourth clause of my said will, to apply the income, according to the directions in the said clause contained, to the prosecution of researches in physical and natural science by assisting experimentalists and observers in such manner and in such sums as shall be agreed upon by the board of direction in the said clause Darned." 9 Mrs. B ache died in February, It370, and in I87I the treasurer, Fairman Rogers, reported that the amount handed over to him by the executors of the estate of Professor B ache was $40~5I5.07' " together with an annual ground rent of Cot, and some lands in Missouri not now ~then] available." 2 In 1879' this amount was increased by $4650, on the death of Henry Stood B ache, a nephew of Professor Bache, who was a beneficiary under the will of Mrs. Bach. The income of the original fund amounted in 1872 to about $2500. The first allotment for scientific research alas made in I87I by the board having the fund in charge, the chairman of which was Joseph Henry. The amount of the grant was $500' and was the first of a series made to Professor l. E. Hilgard in connection with the ma~- netic survey of the United States. 8 The property excepted was a house in Washington, which he gave to his sister, but with the provision that after her death and that of his wife it should also pass to the Academy. ~Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for 1867, p. II. Sen. Misc. Doc. no. 106, 40th Congress, ad Session. 30 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. I, p. 8I. Loc. cit., p. 156.

OCR for page 25
34 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Through this bequest, the Academy was put in possession of an important instrumentality for the promotion of scientific research, and nearly every year, for forty years, the Academy has granted one or more allotments for investigations in various branches of science, but chiefly in physics and astronomy. By ~89 the number of allotments had risen to 79, amounting in all to more than $38,ooo.22 Professor Bache's generous action has not only been of direct benefit to American science, but has sug- gested other bequests and donations to the Academy, through which research has been stimulated arid aided. Besides the death of Professor B ache, other important changes had taken place in the membership of the Academy between ~ 863 and ~ 867. Of the fifty incorporators eight had died, namely, Hubbard, Totten, Hitchcock, Benj. Silliman (senior), Gilliss, A. A. Gould, Bache and Alexander. Eleven members had resigned, and in accordance with the provisions of the consti- tution, two were constituted honorary members on account of age or remoteness from the places of meeting. The January meeting for ~867 was held as usual in Washing- ton and ~; members were present. Only seven papers were read at this meeting, the smallest number presented at any meeting since the organization of the Academy. Resolutions were again passed recommending that the metric system of weights and measures be taught in the public schools and higher institu- tions of learning; and, in addition, registering the opinion that it was highly desirable to employ metric weights in the post- offices " at the earliest convenient day." At the August meeting of ~867 a resolution signed by eight members was offered, requesting that Congress should be asked to amend the act incorporating the Academy so that the member- ship could be increased beyond fifty. The resolution was dis- cussed at this meeting and referred to the Council. At the next session, on recommendation of the Council, it was rejected. The matter did not rest here, however, for at the meeting of April, 1870' it was brought forward again, and this time unanimously adopted by the Academy. . "Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. I, p. 3~7.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 35 At the summer session the Committee on Weights and Measures was authorized and directed " to communicate with individuals and corporations representing the various trades throughout the country tendering advice and assistance in any efforts they may be disposed to make in regard to the introduc- tion of the metric weights and measures." The summer session this year was held in New Haven, ~; members being in attendance. A singular feature of the scien- tific program was that of the 29 papers read, lo were by Professor Agassiz and related chiefly to fishes. The remaining papers, with two exceptions related to the physical sciences. A third number of the Annual of the Academy was published in ~ 867, after which it was discontinued. . I868-I872 Professor Henry continued during 1867 to preside over the meetings of the Academy in the capacity of Vice-President, but in January, 1868, he was elected President, and held that posi- tion for ~ ~ years. At the same time, Wm. Chauvenet was elected Vice-President. The resolution to increase the membership was brought up again at this time, but was rejected. The feel- ing appears to have prevailed, however, that a larger attendance was desirable, and action was taken authorizing the President to invite as many persons not belonging to the Academy as he O ~ ~ might think proper, while each member was privileged to invite a number not to exceed five. The time of the first session was by resolution changed from January to the second week in April, while that of the second session was changed from summer to fall, usually October or November. This new arrangement of meetings was put into effect in ~869 and has continued in force to the present. Not content with passing resolutions regarding the use of the metric system of weights and measures, the Academy in ~868 appointed a committee to wait upon the Postmaster-Gen- eral and urge their adoption in the post-odices. It appears from the records that the communication of the committee was , ,. ~ \

OCR for page 25
92 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES at the market value of $~o,ooo. After providing a plan for in- creasing the capital fund to $~s,ooo, the deed of trust requires that once in every five years, about two-thirds of the accumulated interest shall be awarded as a prize, to be known as the " Com- stock Prize," " to the borza fee resident of North America, who, not less than one year nor more than six years before the award- ing of the prize, shall have made in the judgment of the trustee the most important discovery or investigation in electricity or magnetism or radiant energy." In case no such discovery or in- vestigation is deemed worthy of the prize the trustee is permitted, under certain conditions, to allot the prize-money in aiding research. ~ ~~ - ~ ~ ~~ ~ l he " (:omstock Prize has not as yet been awarded.95 During the period under consideration, ~903 to ~907, the following delegates were appointed to represent the Academy at meetings of various international associations, or celebrations at universities: Professor Simon Newcomb was delegated to attend a meeting of the Council of the International Association of Academies in London, June 4, ~903. The same year Dr. S. F. Emmons, President Van Hise and Dr. Geo. F. Becker, represented the Academy at the International Geological Con- gress held at Vienna on August 27. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the University of Wisconsin, in ~904, Professor Grove K. Gilbert and Dr. Geo. E. Hale were the representatives of the Academy, and at the meeting of the International Association of Academies held in London on May 25, ~904, the Academy was represented by its Foreign Associates, Sir Archibald Geikie and Sir E. Ray Lankester. The following year Dr. William Trelease was designated to attend the Inter- national Botanical Congress held in Vienna, June ~ ~ to ~8, 1905, while Dr. George E. Hale and Professor W. W. Campbell were the representatives on the Committee on Solar Research which met at Oxford in September, 1905. In 1906 Dr. Arnold Hague represented the Academy at the quaternary celebration of the University of Aberdeen. The following year Professor T. C. Chamberlin was the delegate of the Academy at the celebration 96 For the deed of trust and other documents, see Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for ~907, pp. ~3-~5.

OCR for page 25
:` ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 93 of the both anniversary of the founding of the Michigan Agricul- tural College, May 28 to 3~; Dr. Alexander Agassiz represented the Academy at the Seventh International Zoological Congress held in Boston, August ~9 to 23; Dr. Arnold Hague, at the centenary celebration of the Geological Society of London, Sep- tember 26 to 2g; Dr. George E. Hale, at the meeting of the Inter- national Association of Academies, and at the third meeting of the Union for Cooperation in Solar Research, in Paris, in May; Professor W. C. Brogger, at the bicentenary celebration of the birth of Linn~us at Upsala, May 23 and 24; and Professor Henry F. Osborn at a similar celebration in Neal York. T 908 - ~ 9 ~ 2 The proceedings of the Academy in 1908 and the events of that year were important from many points of view. The last of the incorporators of the Academy, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, died on December 9. He was Vice-Presirlent of the Academv from ~ 872 ~ , to 1878 and President from IYgs to I90I. He had also been the first Home Secretary, serving in that capacity from 1863 to 1872. In a brief sketch of his life published in 1908, it is remarked: " His long life was devoted to the cause of research in the field of pure science, and his influence was always on the side of the highest ideals." He was succeeded in the presidency by Alex- ander Agassiz. The subject of the preservation of the forests of the United States had become one of strong public interest in the country in ~908, and the Academy again voiced its opinion regarding this matter in so far as it related to the forests of the White Mountains and the Appalachians in the following resolutions of the Council which were transmitted to the Senate and House of Representatives: " Whereas under the present drain upon the forest timber supply of the entire United States will be exhausted within twenty years, while in the Eastern States, where no adequate means have been employed to protect the forest, the end of the supply is even nearer; 8 ,,

OCR for page 25
94 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES " Whereas the headwaters of all important navigable streams to the west of the Mississippi River are now protected by national forests, while the Appa- lachian Mountains, which form the waterheads of many navigable streams of great importance, are entirely unprotected and are being damaged to a menacing extent by the wasteful cutting of the forest, unrestricted fires, and injudicious clearing; "Resolved, That the council of the National Academy of Sciences heartily favors the extension of the national forest system to the Appalachian Mountains for their protection and permanent utilization. " Resolved, That we urge upon Congress the passage at the present session of a bill to acquire in the southern Appalachian Mountains and the White Mountains such forest lands as are necessary to protect the navigable streams which have their sources therein and to make permanent the timber supply of the eastern part of the Unietd States." 96 The important results obtained through cooperative methods of research led the Academy in agog to appoint additional com- mittees for the promotion of such activities. One of these! the Committee on International Cooperation in Research, was to serve as the adviser of the Academy in its relations with the International Association of Academies. Its duties were " to keep in close touch with the work of the International Associa- tion of Academies, and to assist in securing suitable representa- tion of the Academy at the council and general meetings of the Association "; and also " to consider plans for cooperation in research, and to recommend from time to time the initiation of such cooperative investigations as may warrant the support of the Academy." In Cap, this committee submitted a very interesting report, which, as it briefly summarizes the activities of the Academy in this connection, seems to demand quotation in full. It is as follows: 97 "The committee on cooperation in research met in Boston on April 5. Reports of progress were received from the committees on solar research, on chemical research, on paleontologic correlation, and on brain research. " The International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research has held three meetings, a preliminary one at St. Louis, and largely attended meetings at Oxford and Paris. The second volume of 'transactions has recently been published. Arrangements are now being made for the next meeting, which is to be held at 96 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for ~908, p. 20. 97 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for Log, p. ~3.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY Pasadena and Mount Wilson in Anglo. in progress under the auspices of the union. 95 A large amount of cooperative work is _ " The committee on chemical research has prepared a circular letter to investigators, inviting their cooperation, and the work will be developed rapidly as soon as Doctor Noyes is relieved from his present duties as acting president of the Institute of Technology (in a few weeks). " The committee recognized the importance of cooperative investigations in this country, as well as those of international scope, and decided to encourage promis- ing opportunities in either field. " The chairman was authorized to invite several other members of the academy (selected by the committee) to join the committee, namely, Messrs. Mall, Moore, Chittenden, Chamberlin, Davis, and Wilson. " The importance of providing for adequate means of publication of short papers, as well as complete volumes of transactions, was recognized by the com- mittee, and it was decided to request you to bring this matter to the attention of the council. " It was announced that the academy would be represented by one of the mem- bers of the committee (George E. Hale) at the council meeting of the Inter- national Association of Academies, to be held in Rome June ~-3 next. The appointment of Professor Hale was made by President Remsen. SIMON NEWCOMB, "A.A.NOYES, C. S. MINOT, H. F. OSBORN, GEORGE E. HALE, Chairman. " Communicated by HENRY 1?. OSBORN. The second cooperative committee appointed in 1908 was one on International Paleontological Correlation. The committee on this important subject divided itself into a Vertebrate Section and an Invertebrate Section. The Vertebrate Section submitted a report in 1909, which was published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, under the title of " Geologic Correlation Through Vertebrate Paleontology by International Cooperation." 98 The Academy published this year a comprehensive report on the trust funds of the Academy, comprising transcripts of wills Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. xix, no. 2, part I, pp. 4~-44, April 20, ]909, `` Correlation Bulletin, no. I, Plan and Scope."

OCR for page 25
96 NATION AL AC ~ E M Y OF SCIENCES and deeds of trusts, lists of donors, subscribers, trustees, com- mittees, etc., data regarding the amount of the principal of the several funds, the amount of the income, the amount and object of expenditures, and a summary of the action of the Academy relative to the funds from year to year. As already mentioned, the trust funds of the Academy in 1895 were six in number, the combined principal of which amounted to $94~000. In 1908 two funds had been added, and the total amount of the capital aggre- gated $170~359.I7~99 From these funds, between the years 1871 and 1908? I75 grants were made, ranging in amount from $25 to $2500 each. The majority were from the B ache Fund and from the Gould Fund. In addition, the income of the Wolcott Gibbs Fund was regularly alloted, and gold medals were presented from the funds which provided for them. The grants from the B ache Fund between I87I and 1908 amounted to about $76,ooo, distributed in the following manner: t Astronomy and Astrophysics- Physics . e ~ e e ~ e e e e Magnetic Surveys Physiology and Pathology. Miscellaneous ~~ ............. Chemistry . . . Zoology ................... Botany ..... Paleontology Psychology . . Meteorology Seismology . . . ..$25,650 ... ~4,634 .. 8,260 .. 6,600 ~. 5,35 ............ 5,150 .. 5,05 .. 3,IOO .. 1,200 - 600 . 55 IOO Total $76,244 The grants from the Gould Fund between 1899 and 1908 were all for astronomical investigations and amounted to $9~430. 990f this sum, $40,000 is not yet available. 100 The classification is not entirely exact, as the object of the grants is not always definitely stated. 101 Some of the items under this heading are probably chargeable to astronomy.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 97 Grants from other funds for astronomical purposes amounted to $7,645. The total for astronomical and astrophysical investiga- tions was about $42,725 or nearly one-half the amount of all grants made between ~87~ and ~908, the sum total of which was about $g4,ooo.~2 In Clog, a first installment of the bequest of Professor 0. C. Marsh, was sent to the Academy by the executor of his estate, with the following letter: " PROFESSOR S. F. EMMONS, NEW HAVEN, CONN., November ~ 7, Tog. " Treasurer of the Natio7~1 Academy of Sciences, " Washington', D. C. " DEAR SIR: I think you are perhaps already aware that the late Prof. O. C. Marsh left a bequest to the National Academy of Sciences. The seventh clause of his will is as follows: " ' I give, devise, and bequeath to the corporation known as the National Academy of Sciences, in Washington, D. C., the sum of $~o,ooo as a trust fund, the income to be used and expended by it for promoting original research in the natural sciences.' " When Prof. Marsh died he was somewhat in debt, and we have just succeeded in paying the last of his notes, and have a small balance over, so are sending you with this a check for $~,~50 as a first payment of the above legacy. We hope later to be able to pay the whole amount, as we receive from time to time certain moneys from the George Peabody estate, as certain trusts fall back into that estate, and it is probable that the amount still to be received from that source will be enough to do this. Will you kindly acknowledge the receipt of this payment, and at a later date send us the acceptance of the academy of the above trust? " With great respect, I am, sir, " Very truly yours, WM. W. FARNAM, " Executor Estate of 0. C. Marsh." The Academy, upon recommendation of the Council, ac- cepted this bequest and directed that it be accumulated until it should amount to the sum of $~o,ooo before any grants there made from it. 102 The income of the Watson Fund since egos, which was also clerked to astronomical researches, and some minor items of a miscellaneous character, are not included in the foregoing figures. AIL

OCR for page 25
98 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES In Go the Henry Draper Medal was awarded to Mr. Charles Greeley Abbot, Director of the Smithsonian Astrophys- ical Observatory " for his researches on the infra-red region of the solar spectrum and his accurate! measurements, by im- pro~red devices, of the solar ' constant' of radiation." \03 The medal was presented to Mr. Abbot at the annual dinner, April ~9, ~9~ I. Five years having elapsed since the last award of the Barnard Medal, a committee of the Academy recommended that it be given in Go to Dr. Ernest Rutherford, L`angworthy Professor of Physics and Director of the Physical Laboratory in the University of Manchester for his investigations on the phenomena of radio-activity. as follows: , . _ The committee remarked, in part! " Prof. Rutherford has been identified with this branch of physical science since its inception by the discovery of the so-called X-rays in ~895. His researches, published in numerous communications to current journals, appear to have contributed more than those of any contemporary to the establishment of the salient properties of radio-active substances. Not content with the experi- mental determination and verification of these properties, he has recently gone further and pointed out the convincing evidence they afford of the correctness of the ancient doctrine of the atomic structure of matter. In addition to his con- tributions in this field of investigation of many original, ingenious, and pene- trating methods of observation and measurement, he has also furnished the best general account of its origin, development, and present status in his book on Radio-active Transformations (published in ~906) and in his presidential address read before the section of mathematics and physics of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in August, agog." 204 The medal was awarded to Professor Rutherford' in accord- ance with the recommendation of the committee. The Academy was represented at the meeting of the council of the International Association of Academies held in Rome in June, ~909, by the chairman of the Committee on International Cooper- ation in Research, Professor George E. Hale, who was also the delegate to the Darwin Celebration at the University of Cam- bridge, June 22 to 24' ~909. The committee recommended that the Academy should vote in favor of admitting the Swiss Society 3 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for Negro, p. z2. 04 Loc. cit., p. z4.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY 99 of Natural Sciences to membership in the Association and also in favor of publishing annually a volume of physical and chemical tables in accordance with a plan presented to the Association. These tables were to be compiled from current periodicals, and to be classified under five general heads: general physics, heat, electricity and magnetism, light and sound, physi- cal chemistry. It was expected that they would be useful to students, investigators and those concerned with the practical applications of physics and chemistry, as they would bring together in convenient form a variety of tables that might other- wise be overlooked or difficult of access. The first volume of tables was published in 1912.~5 The Academy was invited in Go by the American Philo- sophical Society to consider the question of the establishment of a seismological laboratory. The project was favorably recom- mended by the Council and at the meeting of April, 19io, the Academy adopted the following resolution: " Resolved, That the academy strongly approves the establishment of the pro- posed Seismological Laboratory, and its organization under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution." 206 Two delegates were appointed in I9IO to represent the Academy at international conventions held during that year. At the International Association of Academies held at Rome in May, and at the International Zoological Congress, held at Gratz, in August, the Academy was represented by Mr. E. G. Conklin; at the International Geological Congress, held in Stockholm in the latter month, by Mr. S. F. Emmons. Dr. Arnold Hague represented the Academy on the occasion of the celebration of the tooth anniversary of the University of Berlin, October lo to 12' i9lO. The sixth President of the Academy, Alexander Agassiz died on March 27' I9IO. He held the presidency from I90I to 1907, And was also Foreign Secretary from 1891 to 1901. Professor Mayer remarked of him: '` His remarkable energy and exec- 105 For the full plan see Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for Too, pp. ~6, ~7. 6 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for Coo, p. 20. l i l

OCR for page 25
TOO utive ability ., NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES fitted him in an eminent degree to be the leader of scenic expeditions. Each exploring trip was planned to a day even to its minute details, every course charted, distances measured and every station decided upon, before he left his desk in the Harvard Museum, so that all of its achievements were actually prearranged. . . . It is due chiefly to his forethought that in more than voodoo miles of wandering over tropical seas he n-`rPr miff with ~ Cf~rin~,c Strident 11~ 11~V~1 1ll~L V,lLll ~ ~~11~o AAmong scientific o men be became the greatest patron ot zoology our country has known. In Also, at the time of his death, the fifty-fourth volume of the Bulletins, and the fortieth volume of the Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology were appearing. These pub- lications had been started in ~ 863 and ~ 864, and in the number of important and beautifully illustrated papers they contain they have been excelled by only a few of the most active scientific societies of the world; yet the expense of producing them has largely been borne by one man Alexander Agassiz." ]07 He bequeathed the sum of $so,ooo " for the general use of the Academy. The International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research in which the Academy is represented held its fourth conference at the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory from August 3~ to September 2, two. At this meeting, which was attended by 37 delegates from foreign countries and ~7 from the United States, the scope of the Union was extended to include all branches of astrophysics. " The resolutions adopted called for the continua- tion of the series of daily photographs of the calcium flocculi with spectroheliographs used by cooperating observatories in various parts of the world; the addition of a series of daily pho- tographs of the hydrogen flocculi; the inclusion in the list of cooperating institutions of the observatories at Tacubaya :~lexlco, and aviary, Spain; the adoption of definite inter- national standards of wave-lengths of the second order, based on interferometer determinations made at three laboratories; i, . . 107 pop. Sci. Monthly, November, I9IO, pp. 425, 430. 308 This sum was paid into the treasury on February I, I9II.

OCR for page 25
ANNALS OF THE ACADEMY IOI the use of barium lines in the neighborhood of ~ 5800, where sharp iron lines are not sufficiently numerous for standards; the extension of the system of standards of the second order to shorter and longer wave-lengths; the measurement of standards of the third order by concave gratings at various cooperating institutions; the use of the name International Angstrom if. A.) for the unit on which the system of standards of the international system is based; the publications of the report of the sun-spot spectrum committee and of the cooperating observers in the next volume of the Transactions of the Solar Union; the con- tinuation of visual observations of spot spectra in accordance with a revised and extended scheme; the preparation of a gen- eral catalogue of the lines in the photographic spectra of sun- spots; the preparation of a new photographic map of the sun- spot spectrum on a scale of 5 mm. to the Angstrom; and the general adoption of the plan of measuring position angles around the sun's limb from the north to the east." t09 The last article of the tenth volume of the Memoirs was published in ~~ I. A new trust fund was placed under the control of the Acad- emy in ~9~ when Sir John Murray presented the sum of $6,ooo to establish a gold medal to be known as the " Alexander Aaassiz ~ An t ~ `` ~ ~ ~ 1 1' . . r lVleual,,, and to be awarded to sclentluc men in any part of the world for original contributions to the science of oceanography." The following year the Academy, upon recommendation of a special committee, accepted a design for the medal prepared by Mr. Theodore Spicer-Simpson.~ The vertebrate section of the committee on paleontologic correlation submitted a second and final report in ~~z from which it is learned that with the aid of grants from the Bache Fund, amounting to $~,ooo, it had prepared and published three " correlation bulletins," entitled respectively " Plan and Scope," " Fossil Vertebrates of Belgium," and " Patagonia and the Pampas Cenozoic." Lists of North American fossil vertebrates were also prepared, and matter relating to correlation was also 09 Rep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for ~9~2, p. ~4. o Loc. cit., p. ~4.

OCR for page 25
I02 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES published in Professor H. F. Osborn's book entitled " Age of Mammals " and an article by him entitled " Correlation and Pal~ogeography." Upon recommendation the section of the committee was discharged. The Academy sent Dr. George F. Becker as its delegate to the meeting of the American Philosophical Society held on April lit' 19 and 20' 1912. At the Roth anniversary of the Royal Society of London, which was celebrated on July ~6-~8, 1912, the Academy had as its delegate Dr. Arnold Hague, Home Sec- retary. The President of the Academy was its representative at the inauguration of President Hibben at Princeton University on May 12' 1912. The will of Morris L`oeb, who died on October 8, 1912' con- tained the following item, adding to the trust funds of the Academy: " ~ give and bequeath to the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, in the District of Columbia, the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars as a contribution toward the Wolcott Gibbs Fund, founded in 1892.~' 1llRep. Nat. Acad. Sci. for ~9~2' p. ~3