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References Ballard, C., J. Shoven, and D. Fullerton 1985 General equilibrium computations of the marginal welfare CoStS of taxes in the United States. American Economic Review 75 (March): 128-38. Baydar, N., M. McCann, R. Williams, and E. Vesper 1997 Final Report: WIC Infant Feeding Practices Study. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Besharov, D.J., and P. Germanis 2001 Rethinking WIC: An Evaluation of the Women, Infants, and Children Program. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press. Bitter, M., J. Currie, and J. K. Scholz 2002 WIC Eligibility and Participation. Unpublished paper, May, University of Browning, E. California Los Angeles, Department of Economics. 1976 The marginal cost of public funds. Journal of Political Economy 84(2):283-298. 1978 The burden of taxation. Journal of Political Economy 86(4):649-671. 1987 On the marginal welfare cost of taxation. American Economic Review 77 (March) 11-23. Burstein, N., M.K. Fox, J. Hiller, and R. Kornfeld 2000 1177C General Analysis Project: Profile of WIC Children. Cambridge MA: ABT Associates. Card, D., and L.D. Shore-Sheppard 2002 Using Discontinuous Eligibility Rules to Identify the Effects of the Federal Medicaid Expansions on Low Income Children. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 9058. Card, D., A.K.G. Hildreth, and L.D. Shore-Sheppard 2001 The Measurement of Medicaid Coverage in the SIPP: Evidence from California, 1990-1996. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 8514, October. 163

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164 ESTIMATING ELIGIBILITYANDPARTICIPATIONFOR THE WICPROGRAM Cole, N., D. Hoaglin, and J. Kirlin 2001 National Survey of WIC Participants: Final Report. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Devaney, B.L., L. Bilheimer, and J. Schore 1990 The Savings in Medicaid Costs for Newborns and Their Mothers from Prenatal Participation in the WIC Program, vol. 1. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. 1992 Medicaid costs and birth outcomes: The effects of prenatal WIC participation and the use of prenatal care. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11 (4) :573- 592. Doyle, P. 1990 Further Analysis of WIC-Eligible Individuals. Memorandum to Sandy Bastone, Food and Nutrition Service. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Washington, DC, October 1. Giannarelli, L., and J. Morton 2000 Estimating the Number of Infants and Children Who Are Income Eligible for WIC. Presentation to the Panel to Evaluate the USDA's Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program. March. Gordon, A., K. Lewis, and L. Radbill 1997 Income Variability amongFamilies with Pregnant Women, Infants or Young Children. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Greenstein, R., J. Duskal, and E. Lazere 1997 What Is the WIC Full Funding Level? Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Hausman, J. 1981 "Labour Supply" in Henry Aaron and Joseph Pechman, eds. How Taxes Abject Economic Behaviour. Washington, DC: The Brooking Institution. Heiser, N., and P. Doyle 1990 Estimated Number of WIC Income-Eligible Individuals Based on SIPP and CPS Data. Memorandum to Sandy Bastone, Food and Nutrition Service. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Washington, DC, September 25. Institute of Medicine 2002 Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program. National Academies Press: Washington, DC. 2000 Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. A Report of the Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jacknowitz, A. 2002 Estimating Eligibility for WIC: The Role of Breastfeeding. Paper presented to the Panel to Evaluate the USDA's Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program, March 19-20. Kalton, G. 1998 SIPP Quality Profile.

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REFERENCES 165 Kipnis V, R.J. Carroll, L.S. Freedman, and L. Li 1999 A new dietary measurement error model and its implications for the estimation of relative risk: Application to four calibration studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 150:642-651. Krebs-Smith S.M., L.E. Cleveland, R. Ballard-Barbash, D.A. Cook, and L.L. Kahle 1997 Characterizing food intake patterns of American adults. American Journal of ClinicalN?~trition 65S:1264S-1268S. Lamas, E., J. Tin, and J. Eargle 1994 The Effect of Attrition on Income and Poverty Estimates from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). SIPP Working Paper 190. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC: Long, S. 1990 Improving Income Allocation in TRIMS: An Assessment of the Months Module. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Munoz K.A., S.M. Krebs-Smith, R. Ballard-Barbash, and L.E. Cleveland 1997 Food intake of U.S. children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 100:323-329. National Center for Health Statistics 2001 Births: Final Data for 1999. Vol.49, No.1.99. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/releases/ 01 news/multibir.htm. National Governors Association 2003 Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Update 2002: State Health Coverage for Low- Income Pregnant Women, Children, and Parents. Health Policy Studies Division. Washington, DC: National Governor's Association. National Research Council 2001 Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Panel to Evaluate the USDA's Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program. M. Ver Ploog and D. Betson, eds. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1993 The Future of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Panel to Evaluate the Survey of Income and Program Participation. C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, eds. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Passel, J.S. 2001 Demographic analysis: An evaluation. Pp. 86-113 in Final Report to Congress of the U.S. Census Monitoring Board. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Rush, et. al. 1988 National WIC evaluation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48(2) :389-483. Ryan, A. 2000 Breastfeeding Trends Through 2000. Ross Products Division Working Paper, Columbus Ohio. Ryan, A., W. Pratt, J. Wysong, G. Lewandowski, J. McNally, and F.W. Krieger 1991 A comparison of breast-feeding data from the National Surveys of Family Growth and the Ross Laboratories Mothers Survey. American Journal of Colic Health 81 (8):1049-1052.

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166 ESTIMATING ELIGIBILI~YANDPARTICIPATIONFOR THE WICPROGRAM Scholz, J.K. 2002 SIPP-Based Estimates of WIC Eligibility and Participation. Presentation to the Panel on Estimating WIC Eligibility and Participation. March 15, 2002. Washington, DC. Smith, B. 2001 Breastfeeding Trends in the U.S. and WIC Population Demographics. Presentation to the Panel to Evaluate USDA's Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program, Washington, DC. Stuart, C. 1984 Welfare costs per dollar of additional tax revenue in the United States. American Economic Review 74 (June) :352-362. U.S. Census Bureau 2002 Source and Accuracy of the Data for the March 2001 Current Population Survey Microdata File. http://www.bls.census.gov/cps/ads/2001 /ssrcacc.htm [July 19, 2002.1 1998 Survey of Income and Program Participation Quality Profile 1998, 3rd edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. Department of Agriculture 2002 Who Gets First Priority for WIC Participation? Food and Nutrition Service. http:/ /www.fns.usda.gov/wic/FAQs/FAQ.HTM#7 [July 19, 2002.] 2001 National Survey of WIC Participants: 2001 Final Repot. N. Cole, et al., eds. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis Nutrition and Evaluation. 2000a 1177C Program Consolidated Regulations. 2000b 1998 WIC Participant and Program Characteristics. 1999a Estimating the N?~mioer of People Eligilolefor WIC and the F?~ll-F?~ndingParticipation Rate: A Review of the Issues. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. 1999b Nutrition Risk and Eligiloilityfor WIC. 1998 1177C Policy Memorandum 98-9: Nutritional Risk Criteria. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. 1987 Estimation of Eligibility for the WIC Program: Report of the WIC Eligibility Study. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2000 Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th edition. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. General Accounting Office 1992 Early Intervention: Federal Investments Like WIC Can Produce Savings. GAO/HRD- 92-18. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. U.S. House of Representatives 1998 A Report to the Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Surveys and Investigations Staff. March, 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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REFERENCES 167 Visness, C., and K. Kennedy 1997 Maternal employment and breast-feeding: Findings from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. American Journal of Colic Health 87: 945- 950. Wheaton, L., and L. Giannarelli 2000 Underreporting of means-tested transfer programs in the March CPS. In American Statistical Association 2000 Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics and Section on Social Statistics. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. Yelowitz, A. 2002 Income Variability and WIC Eligibility: Evidence from the SIPP. Paper presented to the Panel to Evaluate the USDA's Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program, March 19-20.

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