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E Results from Breakout Sessions A key component of the Workshop on Energy and Transportation was the breakout sessions that allowed for individual input by Workshop participants on questions and issues brought up during the presentations and discussions. Each color-coded breakout group (red, blue, green, and yellow) was assigned the same set of questions as the basis for discussions. The answers to these questions became the basis for the data generated in the breakout sessions. After generating a large amount of suggestions and comments, the breakout groups attempted to organize and consolidate this information, sometimes voting to determine which topics the group decided were most important. After each breakout session, each group reported the results of its discussion to the entire workshop. The workshop committee has attempted in this report to integrate the infor- mation gathered in the breakout sessions and to use it as the basis for the findings contained herein. Red Team Challenges Challenges Hydrogen storage Direct conversion of methane Hydrogen from thermochemical sources (hydrogen without carbon emission) Low-energy selective separation Carbon dioxide management High-power-density energy conversion devices 104

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APPENDIX E Enabling Techniques Low-cost catalysts Interface thermodynamics and kinetics Advanced membranes for gas separation Artificial photosynthesis Designer fuels Thin-film electrolytes Computation Detection Sensors Blue Team Challenges Catalysis (enabling science) Catalysis by design Catalysis for fuel cells Efficient carbon dioxide reduction to fuels Direct conversion of Methane Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Cells and Energy Storage High efficiency Low cost Storage Separation Technology the science behind High temperature polymeric membranes for fuel cells Selective separation propane/propylene Conversion of Hydrocarbons to Oxygenated Fuels The fundamentals Tie between: 105 Hydrogen Storage at Ambient Conditions Fundamentals-Based Computer Modeling of Reactions and Processing

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106 Better Processes Define Objective in Energy and Transportation Quantities of energy saved Renewables introduced Carbon dioxide & environmental effects Future needs of power Chemical Sciences Contributions to Above Green Team Challenges Predictable Chemical Catalysis (e.g., nonprecious metals) Cheap Renewable Energy . Solar electricity Hydrogen-2 "Artificial photosynthesis" In situ diagnostics for sensing and control on all timescales Predictable Materials Design Low temperature ion conductors Mesoscale Interfaces and surfaces Noncorroding materials Complete Elaboration of Carbon dioxide Chemistry Low-cost carbon sequestration Carbon dioxide activation APPENDIX E

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APPENDIX E Yellow Team Challenges 107 Energy and Transportation that are Safe, Affordable, and Desirable (lean, green, and keen) More efficient and selective chemical conversion Transportation without harmful emissions Gas-to-liquid technology Cheap H2 "Smart" highways supplying energy Energy management in vehicles Energy storage Development of Energy Systems that Are Secure and Sustainable Emissions management eliminate nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide Solving the greenhouse problem Managing nuclear waste Low-energy water purification Fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide: artificial photosynthesis Selective and energy-efficient chemical separations Predictive Synthesis of Materials with Desired Properties and Functionality . Cost-competitive materials for solar power Cost-competitive materials for fuel cells Cheap, durable, room-temperature superconductors Cost-effective high-performance materials composites, light alloys, etc. Thermoelectrics with high ZT Molecular understanding of energy and molecular conversion Yellow Team Interfaces Fuel Cells (P.E.M.) Electrocatalysis (O2 reduction) Bipolar plate design Enhanced electrode interface Fuel cell membranes H2 Storage

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108 Carbon Dioxide Management Water Purification/Selective Separations Lean-Burn Emissions Lightweight Materials Sensor APPENDIX E Biocatalysis/Genetic Engineering (Hydrogen-2 production, ethanol, Sulphur- removal) Ceramic Membranes/Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Photovoltaics Nuclear Life Cycle/Reactor Engineering Green Team Interfaces Divided by Grand Challenges (bullets in order of votes) Predictable Catalysis Nano-microfabrication (physics, materials science interface with the chemical sciences) Structure/property relationships (physics, materials science) Biodirected/biocatalyzed synthesis (biology) Cheap Renewable Energy: Photovoltaics, H2, Artificial Photosynthesis Hydrogen-2 storage (mechanical engineering, materials science) Charge transport/optical properties, photophysics (electrical engineering, physics, materials science) Design of biomaterials/biomass (biology) Understanding big-energy transduction (biology) Bacterial production of Hydrogen-2 (biology) Heavy metals management (ecology)

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APPENDIX E In situ Sensing and Control 109 Analytical, optical, spectroscopic, solid-state sensors (electrical engineering, physics) Biosensors (biology, electrical engineering) Predictable Materials Design Life-cycle assessment (ecology, material science) Multiscale modeling: molecular, nanoscale, mesoscale (physics, materials science, computer science, mathematics) Biodirected synthesis/self-assembly (biology, physics, materials science) Surface science: morphology, beam technology (physics, materials science) Complete Elaboration of Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Carbon-cycle analysis (climatology, oceanography, geology) Sequestration (geology, climatology) Life-cycle analysis (ecology) Design of biomass (biology) Red Team Interfaces Comprehensive and Integrated Approach Interact with all Interfaces in Early Stages of Research Planning Understand Entire Interface for Full Impact Look Out for Unintended Consequences Materials Science (Really Is Chemistry) Thermochemical production requires new materials H2 storage requires new materials (ambient/solid) Mesoscale structure and behavior Predictable performance New electrolytes

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110 Information Technologies Modeling, analysis, complexity Data: storage, visualization, mining, fusion Collaborative tools/capabilities Mathematics of sensor arrays Signals and signal processing Biomimetic Processes and Synthesis Direct conversion of methane Low temperature catalysis Efficiency and selectivity Physics Solid-state devices Electrooptical Sensors Mechanical Engineering Thermal and mechanical packaging Efficient energy-to-work conversion Fuel cell and battery packaging External Social, political, and economics sciences Model science and social and economic factors Public perception and acceptance Consider multidimensional impacts Environment and health Predictive toxicology APPENDIX E

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APPENDIX E Team Blue Interfaces Solid-State Physics Semiconductors Sensors Transport and storage of H2 Catalysis Computational Sciences 111 Catalysis by design (e.g., single-site catalysis for polyolefin polymerization) Materials Nanostructures Separations Hydrogen storage Photovoltaics Biomimetics Catalysis Energy conversion Biosensors