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1 Introduction The U.S. economy and our quality of life are heavily dependent on economical, plentiful, and reliable supplies of energy. The production of enhanced energy- efficient transportation, improvements in existing sources of energy, and the development of new sources of energy were key challenges to both chemistry and chemical engineering for much of the 20th century. Future challenges to energy and transportation will come from growth in world energy demand, population growth, renewable energy, availability of hydrogen as an energy resource, envi- ronmental constraints such as climate change, and light-duty vehicle power train advancements. The major issue will always be to meet these challenges with cost- effective technologies. A world population of 10 billion to 11 billion is projected by 2050, combined with an annual increase in the average world gross domestic product per person of 1.6 percent (historical average). Counter-balanced against these trends is a decrease of percent annually in the energy consumption per unit of GDP because of expected increases in the efficiency of energy utilization. The expected annual global energy consumption in 2050 will be more than twice current levels. Fossil fuels will continue to be economical and widely available through at least the first half of the 21st century because they are plentiful, readily available, and fundamentally cheap. Currently, 75 million barrels of oil are consumed every day. By 2020 it is anticipated that 112 million to 114 million barrels will be consumed daily. The availability of oil will not be a problem outside political issues that may appear. In fact, in the past 20 years the proven reserves of crude oil have increased by over 50 percent from a little over 600 billion barrels to about 1 trillion barrels. 1 1

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2 ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION Renewable energy technologies are expected to grow significantly. However, over the next 20 years, even with this rapid growth, renewable wind and solar energy will contribute only about 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day energy out of 300 million. Beyond 2020, growth of renewable energy technologies may be very rapid, depending on advances in science and technology. To meet future energy demands, research on technologies that will help meet future demands on energy and transportation must be pursued today. Many of these technological developments will depend on advances made in the chemical sciences, from the development of more efficient catalysts, to improvements in separation technologies, to the development of new materials for photovoltaic cells. The following sections summarize presentations given at the workshop on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century: Energy and Transpor- tation.