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Assessment of Processing Gelleu ~ lVlJJ l\V~I~ at Anniston Committee on Review of Army Planning for the Disposal of M55 Rockets at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Boa rcl on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF DIE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D C www.nap.efdu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 5th Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAADl9-01-C-0001 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08997-2 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52693-0 (PDF) Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Fn~ineerin~ in nrovirlin~ .service.s to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. --Do --D --- r ~--D - The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF ARMY PLANNING FOR THE DISPOSAL OF M55 ROCKETS AT THE ANNISTON CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITY JAMES F. MATHIS, Chair, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh JOHN J. COSTOLNICK, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired), Cambridge DEBORAH L. GRUBBE, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems, Inc., Elyria, Ohio DAVID H. JOHNSON, ABS Consulting, Irvine, California PETER B. LEDERMAN, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), New Providence JOHN L. MARGRAVE, Rice University, Houston, Texas CHARLES I. McGINNIS, U.S. Army (retired), Charlottesville, Virginia FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh JEFFREY I. STEINFELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LIAISON RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia STAFF DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Senior Project Assistant JAMES C. MYSKA, Research Associate V

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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM PETER B. LEDERMAN, Chair, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), Newark CHARLES I. McGINNIS, Vice Chair, U.S. Army (retired), Charlottesville, Virginia DAVID H. ARCHER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh JOHN J. COSTOLNICK, Exxon Chemical Company (retired), Houston, Texas ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DEBORAH L. GRUBBE, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems, Inc., Elyria, Ohio DAVID H. JOHNSON, ABS Consulting, Irvine, California JOHN L. MARGRAVE, Rice University, Houston, Texas JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh ROBERT B. PUYEAR, Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri CHARLES F. REINHARDT, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (retired), Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania W. LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina JEFFREY I. STEINFELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LIAISON RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virg STAFF DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Senior Project Assistant JAMES C. MYSKA, Research Associate . . 1ma

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BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN E. MILLER, Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia GEORGE T. SINGLEY, III, Vice Chair, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Glendale, California ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana HENRY J. HATCH, Army Chief of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City GERALD J. IAFRATE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MIRIAM E. JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia ROGER A. KRONE, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Philadelphia SHIRLEY A. LIEBMAN, CECON Group (retired), Holtwood, Pennsylvania KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (professor emerita), Roswell STEPHEN C. LUBARD, S-L Technology, Woodland Hills, California JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles MILLARD F. ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama WALTER D. SINCOSKIE, Telcordia Technologies, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida STAFF BRUCE A. BRAWN, Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Administrative Associate DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate v~

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Preface Since World War II, the United States has main- tained a large stockpile of munitions containing chemi- cal agents. In 1985, Congress mandated that the stock- pile of M55 rockets containing agent be destroyed expeditiously because of the possibility they might self- ignite. The mandate was eventually expanded to cover the destruction of the entire stockpile of 31,495 tons of predominantly nerve and mustard agents located at nine sites, eight in the continental United States and one at Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean southwest of Ha- waii. The Army created the Chemical Stockpile Dis- posal Program to implement the destruction mission, and the office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization (PMCD) was established to manage it. Congress also instructed the Army to seek the ad- vice of outside independent authorities on the conduct of the program. In response to this instruction, the Army requested the National Research Council (NRC) to advise it on stockpile destruction matters. The standing NRC Com- mittee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemi- cal Stockpile Disposal Program (the Stockpile Com- mittee) was established to provide this advice. Over the years, at the specific request of the Army, the NRC [Early in 2003, activities were initiated for PMCD to be sub- sumed, along with the staffs of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA), the Project Manager for Alternative Tech- nologies and Approaches (PMATA), and the chemical depots, into a new overarching organization, the Chemical Materials Agency. CMA will thus be responsible for both the storage and destruction of the U.S. stockpile of chemical agents and munitions. In this re- port, the earlier acronym, PMCD, will be used. has produced 14 full reports and 16 letter reports on a wide variety of chemical demilitarization topics. The ad hoc Committee on Review of Army Planning for the Dis- posal of M55 Rockets at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (the M55 Committee) was formed un- der the purview of the Stockpile Committee to produce this report. To date, approximately 26 percent of the total stock- pile has been destroyed at two sites Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean and Tooele, Utah using the Army's baseline incineration system technology. M55 rockets containing satin (GB) nerve agent are among the muni- tions that were processed at both the Johnston Island and Tooele facilities. At Johnston Island, all of these rockets contained liquid agent that could be drained and processed in the liquid incinerator. The remainder of each rocket was chopped into pieces and processed in a rotary kiln called the deactivation furnace system (DFS). Most of the GB-filled M55 rockets at Tooele likewise contained liq- uid agent, but a significant number contained gelled or semisolidified agent that could not be drained. Gelled material varies in properties, with some of it showing only a modest increase in viscosity (molasses-like properties) and some being semisolid (like gelatin). When heated, the gel starts to melt and flow like a liquid again. A special processing sequence was developed that bypassed the draining station. Rockets containing gelled GB were chopped into pieces with the gelled agent inside, and the sheared segments were processed in the DFS. Regulatory requirements of the state of Utah required that the rate at which these rockets were processed be reduced such that the amount of agent being fed into the DFS be no greater vim

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than the amount of residual agent (5 percent) allowed when drained rockets were processed. The Army be- lieves that gelled GB rockets can be processed through the DFS at a substantially higher rate while still meet- ing the rigid requirements of a safe operation and ac- complishing the required 99.9999 percent destruction of agent. If the rockets at the Anniston site are processed faster, the risk to the public from the continued storage of the overall Anniston stockpile will be less. Risk as- sessments have consistently indicated that the risk to the public from ongoing storage is significantly higher than the risk from disposal processing. The Army there- fore asked the NRC to evaluate the possibility that gelled rockets could be destroyed safely and effectively at a higher rate than at Tooele. A second, very similar request was received from then-Congressman Robert R. Riley of Alabama, now governor of the state. The M55 Committee would like to recognize the assistance given by Army staff and contractors in pro- viding information and answering questions from the committee. The committee is likewise grateful for the assistance of NRC staff members Donald L. Siebenaler, Harrison T. Pannella, Carter W. Ford, James C. Myska, William E. Campbell, and Elizabeth Fikre in produc- ing this report. James F. Mathis Chair Committee on Review of Army Planning for the Disposal of M55 Rockets at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility . . . vail

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Acknowledgment This report has been reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and tech- nical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide can- did and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Vicki Bier, University of Wisconsin J. Robert Gibson, Gibson Consulting, LLC Michael R. Greenberg, Rutgers University Yacov Y. Haimes, University of Virginia Joseph J. Helble, University of Connecticut Charles E. Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc. Six Kun-Chich Lee, The Dow Chemical Company Walter G. May, University of Illinois Joseph J. Santoleri, Santoleri Associates Adel F. Sarofim, University of Utah Laura J. Steinberg, Tulane University, and Chadwick A. Tolman, University of Delaware Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- tions nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. (re- tired). Appointed by the NRC's Report Review Com- mittee, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsi- bility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, 7 M55 Rocket Processing, 7 Alternatives for Processing GB M55 Rockets at Anniston, 9 Statement of Task, 9 Organization of the Report, 10 M55 ROCKET STORAGE CONDITION ASSESSMENTS Recent Assessments of Storage Conditions, 11 Agent Gelling in GB-Filled M55 Rockets, 12 Implications for Processing, 13 Stockpile Risk Considerations, 14 3 PROCESSING OF M55 ROCKETS AT JACADS AND TOCDF Process Design for JACADS and TOCDF, 15 Loading, Transport, and Unpacking, 15 Rocket Handling System, 16 Agent Disposal, Decontamination of Metal Parts, and Destruction of Energetics and Shipping Tubes, 17 GB M55 Rocket Disposal: Actual Versus Design Rate, 18 JACADS Rocket Disposal Operations During OVT 1, 18 TOCDF Rocket Disposal Operations, 19 Factors Affecting Operational Experience, 19 Coprocessing, 20 Process Changes from Lessons Learned, 21 Lessons from JACADS, 21 Lessons from TOCDF, 22 x~ 7 11 15

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VX M55 Rocket Disposal at JACADS: Actual Versus Design Rate, 23 Comparison of GB and VX M55 Rocket Disposal Campaigns, 23 Stack Emissions, 23 Throughput Rates, 23 Safety Performance, 24 Environmental Performance, 24 Summary Observations on M55 Rocket Disposal Experience, 24 4 PROCESSING OF M55 ROCKETS AT ANCDF Description of the Anniston Stockpile, 26 Public Concerns, 26 Original Disposal Plan for the Anniston Stockpile, 27 Modified Disposal Plan for the Anniston Stockpile, 27 Description of the Modified Plan, 27 Rationale for Implementing the Modified Plan, 29 Experimental and Modeling Results, 29 Critique of Modeling and Areas for Further Investigation, 30 Determining the Maximum Safe Operating Rate, 31 Schedule Implications, 31 Risk Implications of Accelerated Processing, 33 Public Risk, 33 Worker Risk, 34 Health and Environmental Risks, 35 Overall Risk to the Public, Workers, and the Environment, 35 Surrogate Trial Burn in the DFS, 35 Applicability of the Proposed Process for Anniston to Other Sites, 37 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDIXES NRC Recommendations on Public Involvement Reprinted from 2000 Report ANCDF Campaign Schedule Options Biographical Sketches of Committee Members . . x~ 26 38 42 47 49 51

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List of Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1 Anniston Chemical Stockpile: Number of Munitions Containing Each Agent, 9 2-1 Munition Leaks by Type of Agent, 12 4-1 Comparison of Storage Risk for the Anniston Public Under Four Different Rates of Rocket Disposal, 34 4-2 Results of ANCDF Surrogate Trial Burn Runs for the DFS, 37 B-1 ANCDF Campaign Schedule Options, 50 FIGURES 1-1 M55 chemical rocket, 8 3-1 Rocket handling system, 16 3-2 Chopping sequence for 115-mm M55 rocket, 17 . . . x~

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Acronyms ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system Alabama Department of Environmental Management ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility agent trial burn ADEM ATE BRA Btu CAC CFD CMA CR&E CSDP CWDA DFS DICDI DPE DRE DUN ECR EPA GB brine reduction area British thermal unit . . . . . . citizens advisory commission computational fluid dynamics Chemical Materials Agency Continental Research & Engineering Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program cases with days away (from work) per 200,000 hours worked deactivation furnace system diisopropylcarbodiimide demilitarization protective ensemble destruction and removal efficiency dunnage incinerator explosion containment room Environmental Protection Agency satin, a nerve agent (methylphosphono- fluoridate, isopropyl ester) H HCE HC1 HD HDC HEPA HRA HT HTT mustard (blister) agent, bis-~2-chloroethyl) sulfide hexachloroethane hydrogen chloride mustard (blister) agent (distilled) heated discharge conveyor high-efficiency particulate air (filter) health risk assessment mustard (blister) agent (with additive T. bis-~2~2-chloroethylthio) ethyl] ether, to lower the freezing point) high-temperature test JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System LIC LTT MCB MDB no Ugly mg/dscm mm MPF MR&E NC NO ng xv liquid incinerator low-temperature test monochlorobenzene munitions demilitarization building microgram, one one-millionth of a gram micrograms per cubic meter milligrams per dry standard cubic meter millimeter, one one-thousandth of a meter metal parts furnace Maumee Research & Engineering nitrocellulose nitroglycerine nanogram, one one-billionth of a gram

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ng/m3 nanograms per cubic meter RIR recordable injury rate NRC National Research Council RO roundout GB agent ONC on-site container rpm revolutions per minute OVT operational verification test RS GB agentlots restabilized with DICDI RSM rocket shear machine PAS pollution abatement system PCB polychlorinated biphenyl SBCCOM Soldier Biological and Chemical PFS PAS filter system Command PMCD Program Manager for Chemical SOPC substances of potential concern Demilitarization SOT statement of task PRO preroundout GB agent TEA tributylamine QRA quantitative risk assessment TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act VX a nerve agent, RD distilled roundout GB agent O-ethyl-S-~2-isopropylaminoethyl) RHS rocket handling system methylphosphonothiolate xv~