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10 Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory Division Reviews PRECISION ENGINEERING DIVISION Technical Merit . The Precision Engineering Division (PED) is responsible for the realization and dissemination of the SI unit of length: it conducts R&D in precision-engineered, length-metrology-intensive systems and provides industry-important, length-related measurement, standards, and technology services. PED en- gages in a diverse set of programs, organized in four groups: Nanoscale Metrology, Surface and Micro- form Metrology, Engineering Metrology, and Large-Scale Coordinate Metrology. The division also contributes to the Shop Floor as NMI Program. The work and the array of capabilities represented within PED exhibit high technical merit and quality. The division performs length measurements over 12 orders of magnitude, all at state-of-the-art precision for National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). This range is divided into four overlapping seg- ments, corresponding to the groups mentioned above, each of which has successfully achieved many goals since the review in 2002 and is making significant contributions to the overall success of the .. . . alvlslon. The division's staff continues to record its outstanding work in archival publications. Individual staff members have garnered many technical awards and have played leadership roles in major confer- ences and industry consortia. The technical quality of the measurement work is also quantitatively benchmarked by round-robin measurement activities with other NMIs around the world, with results that reflect well on NIST. Timely execution is a key component of technical merit and program relevance. Most projects in PED span multiple years. It is evident from its many ongoing projects that PED engages in a significant NOTE: Chapter 3, "Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory," which presents the laboratory-level review, includes a chart showing the laboratory's organizational structure (Figure 3.1) and a table indicating its sources of funding (Table 3.1~. 127
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28 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 degree of project planning. However, the following common elements of planning have been absent from presentations to the panel: · Roadmaps that describe PED's opportunities to address future technology needs. Roadmaps should include PED's assessment of industry needs over time and the corresponding PED resources that can be brought to bear. They should also include a projection of benefits to be gained by using the Advanced Measurement Laboratory. · Project schedules that identify key milestones and deliverables on a time line for each project undertaken. Such schedules would be particularly useful in assessing progress on multidisciplinary projects. Each group involved could speak to a common project plan that showed the interdependencies of activities. · Trend charts that plot historical trends of performance (e.g., measurement uncertainty for a particular calibration, SRM sale volume and revenue, services volume and revenue, cycle time, and cost). This information would help the panel to distinguish cumulative achievement, current progress toward objectives, and future directions on an appropriate timescale. Its absence handicaps the panel's ability to assess PED performance. The Nanoscale Metrology Group extends dimensional metrology to the submicron scale, providing standards, measurement capability, and measurement uncertainty guidelines for the semiconductor and nanotechnology industries. Its stated goal is to provide to the U.S. microelectronics industry reference measurements, reference standards, and metrology necessary to realize the production goal of 100-nm devices by 2005. This work encompasses SRMs and metrology methods for photomask and wafer critical dimension, pattern placement and overlay metrology, and the development of three-dimensional structures of controlled geometry whose dimensions can be traced directly to the intrinsic crystal lattice. Consistent with its stated goal, the program has been guided by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS); however, project plans do not appear to be directed toward the 2005 target date. Members of the group continue to work in close collaboration with the industry consortium, International SEMATECH (ISMT). During 2002, the Nanoscale Metrology Program consisted of 10 distinct projects organized in two subprograms: · The Nanometrology Science subprogram is composed of six projects oriented toward the funda- mental understanding of dimensional, placement, and overlay metrology. Nanometer-scale SRMs origi- nate in this subprogram. · The Nanometrology Tooling subprogram is composed of four projects oriented toward the devel- opment of advanced metrology tooling and fabrication capability. These projects demonstrate the breadth and depth of the Nanoscale Metrology Program in addressing current and future nanotechnology manufacturing needs. For the most part, the projects appear well directed, and the staff is highly motivated. Under the Nanometrology Science subprogram, significant advances in fundamental scanning elec- tron microscopy and optical microscopy continued in 2002. This work has, in close interaction with ISMT, provided critical guidance to metrology efforts in the semiconductor industry. Notable among these are the model-based line width metrology that is finding acceptance among scanning electron
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 129 microscope manufacturers and the overlay research and tool development that are central to overlay benchmarking and calibration. Progress on a number of SRMs was reported, including the issuance of the SRM 2800 Traceable Scale Micrometer Standard, calibration and delivery to the Office of Standard Reference Materials of the SRM 2059 Photomask Linewidth Standard, and the first fabrication of the SRM 2120 SEM Magni- fication and Linewidth Standard. Through work on the AMAG 4 (ISMT Advanced Metrology Advisory Group) benchmarking wafer, a joint ISMTINIST project, PED researchers have played a significant role in establishing a common artifact for scanning electron microscopy, scatterometry, electrical probe comparisons, and line-edge roughness evaluations. The panel has not received a status report on the two-dimensional mask standard that was to have been issued in the fall of 2002. To assess the value of SRM work, the panel will require data regarding the dissemination and use of prior SRMs, as well as a projection regarding the dissemination and potential use of the new SRMs. Improvements were reported in the fabrication of nanotips as replacement electron sources for scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). In previous years, significant improvements in SEM resolution have been reported with the use of nanotips, but tip lifetime is a reported drawback. The work has been conducted with the cooperation of Hitachi, a major SEM manufacturer. No roadmap for implementation has been presented, making it difficult for the panel to assess the progress and importance of this work. Progress in the Atom-Based Artifact project and the Integrated Dimensional and Electrical Metrol- ogy (IDEM) project is notable. The Atom-Based Artifact project was able to provide substrates for the Molecular Measuring Machine Program. Work on IDEM toward the fabrication of sub-50-nm quantum devices earned a PED staff member a Department of Commerce Gold Medal in 2002. The Nanometrology Tooling subprogram continues to pursue several novel approaches to metrol- ogy instrumentation. Progress was made on the molecular measuring machine where 10-nm line writing capability was demonstrated under interferometric control. While calibration services continued with the existing length-scale interferometer (LSI), work was initiated toward the development of a next-generation LSI tool that is critical to the PED calibration mission. The Surface and Microform Metrology Group works primarily in the measurement of nanometer- to micron-scale surface features, using microscopy or stylus-based instrumentation. The work of this group supports research and development in microelectronics, optics, other manufacturing industries, and homeland security. In the micrometer (and particularly stylus-based) surface metrology areas, metal-cutting industries are the primary customers. The staff of the Surface and Microform Metrology Group are highly regarded in the technical community, and their work is world-leading. In some cases, however, NIST instrumentation is lagging behind the instrumentation currently available in industrially based laboratories. As a result, the group is most effective in addressing targeted projects that meet specified needs with existing NIST resources. This group has made significant contributions to national and international standardization for surface metrology, including recent editorial activities for the ASME-B46.1 Standard and the development of a section of the upcoming ISO surface texture series of standards. The group's work on standardized bullets and casings, hardness traceability, uncertainty reductions, and calibration of Type-D roughness artifacts has been effectively performed. The Engineering Metrology Group works to manage and reduce the uncertainty contribution of the traceability of length, location, spacing measurements, and other traditional geometric and dimensional tolerancing (GD&T)-type dimensional controls (e.g., roundness, cylindricity, perpendicularity, and angle). The group also characterizes, evaluates, and improves instruments that measure lengths and coordinates and develops new techniques for measurements from 1 micrometer, as a lower bound, to a
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130 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 meter as a loose upper bound. It also supports the availability of alternate routes, other than the NIST PED, for industry to establish traceability in these regimes, such as NAVLAP laboratories (e.g., the Oak Ridge Y12 Metrology Laboratory and the Starrett Webber Gage Block Laboratory) and other ISO 17025-compliant laboratories, and the group collaborates with other recognized National Metrology Institutes such as the United Kingdom' s NPL and Germany' s PTB. The group' s primary customers are the U.S.-based discrete-parts manufacturing industry and the measurement equipment makers (such as those affiliated with the American Measuring Tools Manufacturing Association). The Engineering Metrology Group is performing new calibration research at a reasonable level to support the current and anticipated needs of the discrete-parts manufacturing industry and of measure- ment equipment makers. Its efforts include research in collaboration with NIST Boulder to decrease the uncertainty of laser interferometry for greater capability in length and frequency metrology; research in dilatometry to measure thermal expansion with lower uncertainty and carry the capability to grid two- dimensional expansion; excellent effort in line scale measurement, with continued world-leading capa- bility despite very old equipment and current research to build a new device; cylindricity capability research in collaboration with industry; new laser micrometer methods for the measurement of spherical and cylindrical diameters; and new probing methods primarily for submillimeter feature-measurement on the M48 Moore Special Tool coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and for use in new calibration methodologies (0.5- to 0.1-mm holes). The Engineering Metrology Group also is continuing to support research and standardization in uncertainty management. It supports the Shop Floor as NMI Program to provide documentation and to educate industrial users on managing uncertainty and endeavors to include levels of confidence in its measurement developments and services across projects. The group is collaborating with international NMIs to compare its results with those of its international colleagues, which represents an excellent validation effort. The Engineering Metrolo~v Groun's hi~h-aualitv work on developing the traceability of cvlindricitv measurements is needed by industry. The croup should consider including the impact of instrument ~7 ~7 ~ 1 ~7 1 ~ 1 ~7 band pass in determining traceability. Its plan is to use artifacts that are characterized by only one distinct undulations-per-revolution (UPR) frequency. Just as in determining surface finish, a major contributor to errors in measuring roundness results from misunderstood or insufficient band pass in the equipment and/or the measurement technique. The group has demonstrated the canabilitv to use dia- · . mond turning to provide artifacts that have 50 or more distinct UPRs with random phasing, making it possible to map out the response of their signal conditioning and filtering so that users know their machines are performing properly and calibrated to national and international procedural standards. Such artifacts are referred to as Type-D artifacts in ISO standards. The group should consider this approach for its Cylindricity Traceability project. The Large-Scale Coordinate Metrology Group characterizes, evaluates, and improves instruments that measure coordinates at lengths greater than 1 m. Examples of such projects completed this past year are a shipbuilding measurement system and a laser-tracker calibration system pertaining to missile launch from submarines. The group has undertaken a project to investigate ways of precisely measuring propeller dimensions while simultaneously machining the propeller. These sorts of collaborative projects keep NIST at the forefront of large-scale metrology while at the same time providing a boost to industrial productivity. The group is also involved in the development of standards and artifacts for a variety of devices such as laser trackers and targetless scanners. Members of the group have made numerous presentations and hold leadership positions in many professional organizations and standards- setting groups.
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Program Relevance and Effectiveness 131 PED's Nanoscale Metrology Group ensures the relevance and effectiveness of its activities through close collaboration with both industry and industry consortia and engagement in international symposia. The work of the group is well known throughout the semiconductor and MEMs industries and is highly regarded. Collaborations have led not only to new standards but also to the improved performance of commercially available metrology products such as SEMs and optical microscopy tools. While there is no question of the group' s competence and leadership in the nanometer metrology realm, coordination was not evident among the projects undertaken to support the stated mission of enabling 100-nm manufacturing in 2005. Given the rapid pace of technology advance in nanometer-scale manufacturing, where industry development activities are already pushing beyond 100 nm, the panel recommends that the Nanoscale Metrology Group reformulate its mission and projects to improve internal coordination. The Surface and Microform Metrology Group is engaged in several projects that are beneficial both to industry and to other government agencies (e.g., standardized bullets/casings, hardness traceability), and it also appears that the group is moving into areas that will be very valuable to many traditional metrology customers (e.g., software calibration for surface texture and the development of traceable Type-D artifacts). The panel recommends that discerned tendencies to reinvent work that has been attempted or conducted elsewhere be redirected by increased collaboration outside the laboratory, which may shorten development times and improve results for some projects. The Engineering Metrology Group receives products from the measurement equipment makers for examining and furthering the state of the art in several areas a demonstration of its collaboration with this customer segment. The group seems to have a clear picture of its area of responsibility and its duties to satisfy customers' needs. The group's level of income from services ($800,000 in calendar years 2001 and 2002)is higher than that of any other group in MEL, making calibration services self-supporting. The group is relied on heavily by customers that use its services, but the cost of NIST calibrations is pushing customers to seek alternative sources of calibration services. The Engineering Metrology Group reported that about 20 to 30 percent of its calibration tasks were completed on time; the M48 Moore Special Tool CMM was identified as a particular problem area in this regard. Especially in cases in which a missed delivery date has been set by the division, customers can lose faith in the group's ability to deliver its product. The division might consider referring to the Y12 Metrology Laboratory machinets) those customers who would be satisfied with the capabilities of those machines. The group's equipment will be going down for approximately 6 months for the move into the new AML. During this time, the group plans to rely more heavily on partner laboratories such as Y12 for continued customer support. The panel is concerned that moving complex equipment could cause previously unforeseen sources of uncertainty that could take significant time (months to years) to solve beyond the time needed to bring the equipment back into service. No plan was presented to deal with such contingencies. Much of the research of the Large-Scale Coordinate Metrology Group is funded at least partially by industrial or defense organizations. Examples of such projects completed this year are a shipbuilding measurement system for the National Shipbuilding Research Program and a laser-tracker calibration system pertaining to missile launch from submarines for the Naval Surface Weapons Center. The Large-Scale Coordinate Metrology Group's Shop Floor as NMI Program has as its goal the movement of traceable measurements onto the shop floor and away from the national measurement institutes, except when measurements of the highest accuracy are required. To accomplish this goal, the program is developing a suite of documentary standards, guidelines, and reports. Program staff are working to complete a "smart artifact" and a laser-based ball bar calibration system for the benefit of
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32 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 fixed CMM users and manufacturers. To assist in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty, the program has developed a Monte Carlo simulation method that has now been incorporated into a com- mercially available metrology software product. Division Resources Over the past year in PED, the Nanoscale Metrology Group has addressed the equipment needs pointed out in last year's report. In particular, the group has obtained, installed, and begun working with a Nikon 5i two-dimensional pattern placement metrology tool. This capability will be critical to the support of both mask and wafer metrology. Furthermore, the group is reported to be in negotiations to upgrade its Hitachi SEM and to obtain an FEI Co. high-pressure SEM. The group has shown admirable ingenuity in fitting these normally "big-ticket" purchases into its severely constrained budget. In another creative approach to leveraging expensive equipment, the group has participated in a telepresence microscopy program with government research institutes, ISMT, and universities. Telepresence micros- copy enables remote access to metrology equipment among all participants. Savings to date in duplicate instrumentation are estimated to be $3 million. PED is planning a staffing increase in the group com- mensurate with the growing importance of this area. The upgrades to nanometer-scale metrology equip- ment should address many of the concerns raised in last year' s report regarding NIST' s ability to support the capital-intensive industries, such as semiconductor manufacturing, with meaningful standards and timely research. It remains to be seen how effectively this equipment will be used. To make a meaning- ful assessment, the panel needs to see a roadmap of how the Nanoscale Metrology Group plans to address industry needs, including appropriate insertion points for new standards based on the added capability. Funding continues to be a challenge for the Surface and Microform Metrology Group. Many customers for this area are often unwilling to provide significant funding on a per-project basis. This lack of funding is evident in terms of the age and capabilities of the group's instrumentation as com- pared with industrially based applications. This difficulty is further complicated by the upcoming move to the AML facility, which will require considerable downtime and setup time. Because of the Engineering Metrology Group's collaboration with the measurement equipment makers, the equipment is maintained at a level of technology commensurate with that used by its customers. The M48 Moore Special Tool CMM is world-leading, at an error level of 1 Em or less anywhere in its volume. It is used for length traceability and for evaluation of two-dimensional CMM traceability artifacts and other calibrations. The group's gage block calibration capability is world-class, and ongoing research into the effects of deformation and surface finish are maintaining this traceability program at this level. MANUFACTURING METROLOGY DIVISION Technical Merit The goal of the Manufacturing Metrology Division is to fulfill the measurements and standards needs of the United States in mechanical metrology and advanced manufacturing technology by con- ducting research and development in realizing and disseminating SI mechanical units; developing methods, models, sensors, and data to improve metrology, machines, and processes; providing services in mechanical metrology, machine metrology, process metrology, and sensor integration; and leading in
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 133 the development of national and international standards. The division is organized in four groups: Mass and Force, Machine Tool Metrology, Manufacturing Process Metrology, and Sensor Development and Application. The division's goals apply across a broad scope of activities related to manufacturing, posing a challenge to division management to integrate the technical activities of the four groups. Recognizing resource limitations, division management has made a strategic decision to limit its scope to four major programs: Advanced Optics Metrology, Mechanical Metrology, Smart Machine Tools, and Predictive Process Engineering. It also plays a supporting role in the integrated Nanometer-to-Millimeter Manu- facturing Technologies Program, the Nanomanufacturing Program, and the Nanoscale Metrology Pro- gram. This focusing of scope is likely to improve the potential impact of each program. These programs, and the technical projects within them, are closely tied to the current core competencies of the division. The division has several technical programs and projects that are well suited to its role, including those in Advanced Optics Metrology, Microforce Competence, Smart Machine Tools, and Mesoscale Machining. The division is also engaged in metrology services, work on international standards, and international measurement comparisons. These efforts continue to meet the expectations of its custom- ers. The Advanced Optics Metrology Program is well focused on areas of significant need and is of high technical quality. The accomplishments of the XCALIBIR (X-ray Optics Calibration Interferometer) project, which is focused on an area of significant metrology need in semiconductor manufacturing, are impressive. The laboratory capability and technical results are world-class. The program is well con- nected to the industrial customers that drive development and eagerly implement results. The panel remains concerned about some current assignments of program personnel. The Manufacturing Process Metrology Division leader has assumed leadership of the Advanced Optics Metrology Program, reliev- ing the division' s director as the interim manager. However, the key technical leader of the program is not a full-time NIST employee, which exposes the project and program to risk with respect to long-term continuity and progress. Work on microforce measurements has shown significant progress in the past year. Its impact is significant, the technology challenges have been clearly identified, and a detailed technical plan has been developed. Each year the Microforce project makes significant progress on the technical plan. It is anticipated that this project will establish the reference standard for small-force measurement. The Smart Machine Tools Program has been well focused on areas of significant need and demon- strates high technical quality, but the rate of progress has slowed. The program has the requisite technical knowledge and contacts, and the division should take control of planning, accelerate the roadmapping effort, and quickly bring the work to completion. Driven by its commitments to and involvement in international and regional comparisons, the Mechanical Metrology Program is also well focused and continues to make good progress. The Smart and Wireless Sensors project has cleverly applied its technology to homeland security applications. This project is an excellent example of dual-use technology. The sensor and network technologies can be deployed for homeland security as well as being used in manufacturing applications. During the past year, there seems to have been a major emphasis on homeland security within this project; the team should maintain a focus on manufacturing applications in addition to the new security initiative. The panel is not able to provide a complete assessment of all the division's projects; updates on some projects that had been showcased in previous years were missing or incomplete. An overview was not presented for the Predictive Process Engineering (PPE) Program, although the division did clarify the objectives of the program and the technical contributions of the division. Nonetheless, the panel
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34 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 remains concerned about the complexity of the integration of all the subprojects. The division adopted the panel's recommendation to focus on a demonstration part of the PPE Program. The individual elements of this program will be integrated and applied from design through manufacturing with this test part. This exercise will demonstrate the challenges, opportunities, and technical complexities of the PPE vision. The panel requests a detailed presentation of the experiences and results of this demonstra- tion exercise in the next division review. The demonstration part will be a critical element for tracking the ongoing progress of the projects and the overall program. After completing the demonstration, the division should reevaluate its available technical resources for this program and, if necessary, secure the appropriate expertise to meet the program goals. Some aspects of the PPE Program are in line with NIST's mission specifically, the activities of model standardization and material property character- ization. The panel did not receive updates on projects in the vibration, acoustics, linear motor, and mass calibration technology areas. The panel requests that, in addition to technical highlights, summaries of all division projects be included during future panel reviews. Program Relevance and Effectiveness The Manufacturing Metrology Division serves two primary roles. First, it is the nation's reference laboratory for the units of mass, force, vibration, and sound pressure. In this role, the division provides calibration services, develops advanced methods for mechanical metrology, develops national and international standards, and leads efforts with international standards organizations. This role is critical for the nation's manufacturing industry and for distributed international manufacturing and commerce. The division retains world-class capabilities and has state-of-the-art facilities for a number of metrology services. The XCALIBIR and Microforce Projects are excellent examples of newly developed. world- class capabilities derived from technical projects. The second major role of the Manufacturing Metrology Division is to develop technology for manufacturing and mechanical metrology. The customers of this effort include both industrial and governmental communities. The division fulfills this role through its internal projects and by acting as a catalyst or facilitator for collaborative efforts between government, industry, and academia. The division's work is disseminated through multiple means. Workshops, consortia, and standards committees continue to provide vehicles for disseminating many research results. Workshops are also used to identify customer needs (for example, the Smart Machine Tools Roadmapping Workshop). Many members of the technical staff are speakers at conferences and seminars. The division is also active in producing publications and presentations and in participating on committees of numerous professional societies. These presentations, the issuance of standards, and the division's technical pub- lications all provide evidence that the division is serving its customers, but these indicators alone cannot be used to measure the impact of these results quantitatively. The impact of calibration services can also be determined by considering the number of paying customers using them. The Mass and Force Group, for example, serves individual paying customers directly and is working with an industrial partner in implementing new, higher-resolution mass calibrations. The continued request for division involvement in standards activities (e.g., IEEE 1451, ANSI/ASME standards, and international standards) also indi- cates the relevance of the division's work. After several years of concern, the panel now endorses the matrix management structure within the Manufacturing Metrology Division. Based on a detailed review, the panel has a more complete under- standing of the structure and its intent. There are still challenges that need to be met to further improve organizational productivity, competence, and morale. Constant and consistent communication by divi- sion management, group leaders, and program managers about the objectives and operation of the . . . .
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 135 matrix management system are essential for success. Division management will need to remain vigilant to ensure that the structure does not cause duplication between group leaders and program managers and provides fair representation for the staff. The matrix management approach can be very beneficial for the division, but its implementation should be continually monitored, and it should be modified as necessary to achieve the intended results. The panel heard little discussion of project selection criteria during the divisional review (this issue was adequately addressed during the laboratory-level panel review). This observation was also made in last year's report, and it should be an area of continual attention in order to ensure relevance in project selection. The panel recommends that each project be clearly connected to both MEL's strategic plan and the division's mission statement. Division Resources As of January 2003, staffing for the Manufacturing Metrology Division included 41 full-time permanent positions, of which 36 were for technical professionals. There were also a dozen non- permanent or supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and temporary or part- time workers. The panel remains concerned about the division's ability to retain talented technical professionals and to recruit equally talented new employees. Several technically strong key personnel have left the division in the past few years. The success of the division's programs relies almost exclusively on the technical competencies of its staff. Division management recognizes this challenge and is taking steps to address the issue. In particular, the strong emphasis on postdoctoral research associates is part of an effort to identify candidates for employment while also sparking their interest in a career at NIST. The Manufacturing Metrology Division has limited its scope in programs and projects to match its available resources. One specific challenge within the division is the diversity of function and content. A significant portion of division resources are involved in calibration services and in supporting the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) trials. (This agreement was signed in 1999 by the NMIs of the 38 member states of the Metre Convention.) It is difficult to integrate these functions and specialties into the other technical projects within the division. These functions can, if not carefully managed, dilute the overall technical impact of the division. The panel recommends that the division carefully evaluate the tasks assigned to the nontechnical staff. The Manufacturing Metrology Division has engaged in appropriate, sustained efforts to augment the permanent staff with postdoctoral fellows and guest researchers. The division increased supplemental staffing by 4.8 full-time employees from 2002 to 2003. Division management and staff should take measures to ensure that the experiences of these supplemental employees are positive so that they may favorably consider future employment at NIST. The division's budget and number of employees have been relatively stable over the past few years. In contrast, many industrial and educational institutions have experienced dramatic reductions in bud- gets and workforce. The division has also accomplished significant facility improvements. Two new machine tools were acquired in 2002. These assets represent very significant enablers for the technical projects and programs of the division. The continuing role of the division as a leader in the development of national and international standards ensures that the interests of the United States are protected. For this reason, the division must continue to provide adequate resources in this area. The division devotes significant resources to the key comparisons and other requirements called for in the Mutual Recognition Agreement. The division's continued active role in this area is imperative.
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136 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS DIVISION Technical Merit The goal of the Intelligent Systems Division (ISD) is to develop the measurements and standards infrastructure needed for the application of intelligent systems by manufacturing industries and govern- ment agencies. The division is organized in five groups: Perception Systems, Knowledge Systems, Control Systems, Machine Systems, and Systems Integration. These five groups work on the following programs: Intelligent Open Architecture Control of Manufacturing Systems, Intelligent Control of Mobility Systems, and Critical Infrastructure Protection. These three programs are managed by ISD. The division also supports the following MEL programs: Predictive Process Engineering, Smart Ma- chine Tools, and Nanomanufacturing. Improvements and extensions of the Standards for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) programs are advancing in several areas and involve several of the MEL divisions. The MEL Precision Engineering Division is directly involved with extensions to support assembly, interpart relationships, mating features, and representation of features and tolerances. Interoperability is a key issue, and in the Intelligent Systems Division, the Intelligent Open Architecture Control (IOAC) of Manufacturing Sys- tems Program is addressing important issues in the use of STEP as a basis for the automated generation of process programs and control. STEP-NC (STEP-numerical control) is intended to generate NC programs directly from base computer-aided design (CAD) description. The IOAC of Manufacturing Systems Program has participated in a conformance testing pilot and has contributed to an ISO white paper on this topic. This program should continue to work on these topics. Strong interaction with commercial vendors and machine tool manufacturers involved in NC development is important. A systematic view of the interdisciplinary interactions among MEL divisions and the long-term plans for continued development are strongly encouraged. The goal of the Intelligent Open Architecture Control of Manufacturing Systems Program is to develop and validate, by 2005, key interface standards and conformance tests for those standards, and to achieve interoperability among control systems for machines on the factory floor and with design and planning systems and factory data networks. The program encompasses work on a number of standards and on testing and validation of standards for several different industries and equipment types. The staff is working with industry groups (such as the Automotive Industry Action Group and Robotic Industries Association tRIA] and Open Modular Architecture Controller tOMAC] user groups) to realize common benefits. For FY 2003, expected outputs include an interoperability demonstration of STEP-NC for milling, testing utilities for I++ dimensional measurement equipment, an OMAC application program- ming interface, database implementation of American Welding Society (AWS) welding procedures and test results, and an RIA technical report on robot-controlled network configuration. Progress has been made in 2002 toward realizing those goals. ISD has developed a testbed for the evaluation of these requirements and has replaced the Hexapod machine with two commercial machine tools. The division's work platform has become more representative of target commercial platforms. The goal of the Intelligent Control of Mobility Systems Program is to provide architectures and interface standards, performance test methods and data, and infrastructure technology needed by the U.S. manufacturing industry and government agencies in developing and applying intelligent control technology to mobility systems to reduce cost, improve safety, and save lives. The program consists of elements that focus on DOD unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), industrial material handling, and performance measures for mobile robots. Accomplishments on DOD UGVs in 2002 included successful demonstrations of NIST real-time control (RTC) controlled robotic vehicles and the publication of a
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 137 reference model architecture for UGVs. The NIST team, among the world leaders in UGV technology, received the Jacob Rabinow Applied Research Award for its R&D in robotic perception, planning, and control and its application to UGVs. The Industrial Material Handling project aims by 2005 to provide industries with necessary stan- dards, performance metrics, and infrastructure technology to support the use of noncontact safety sensors and control systems that enable broader use of advanced perception and navigation techniques in the automated guided vehicle industry and other industries. The division is developing an indoor testbed vehicle industry that will support technology integration and testing to study technology transfer to the Industrial Material Handling project from DOD work and from Department of Transportation work on autonomous highway driving and vision-based lane-following. The objectives of the Perfor- mance Measures for Mobile Robots project are to provide by 2005 the evaluation and measurement methods, testing procedures, and standard reference data needed for performance analysis and deploy- ment of advanced sensors, and for intelligent vehicle control systems on manned and unmanned vehicles used in next-generation transportation safety systems and in UGVs for the military. The Competence Development and Infrastructure Program develops fundamental competence in areas of broad relevance to the division. The program' s goal is to provide a clearly defined framework within which intelligent systems technologies can be readily evaluated, specified, and integrated by U.S. manufacturing to provide breakthrough levels of productivity. The program defines four principal areas of fundamental research: metrics for intelligent systems, knowledge engineering of models supporting sensory perception and control, architecture and tools for building and integrating intelligent controls for complex systems, and learning methodologies supporting optimization and adaptive control. Signifi- cant accomplishments in metrics during the past year have included development of test arenas for rescue robot tasks, performance metrics for human-robot interaction studies, and the Third International Workshop on Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems. In knowledge engineering, work on model representation, especially moving-object representation, is of particular relevance to the mobile robot programs. In the architectures and tools work, the primary focus continues to be the development of RCS, with publication of the 4D/RCS Reference Architecture and applications to US CAR (United States Council for Automotive Research) and DARPA/MARS (Mobile Autonomous Robot Software) projects. Fundamental work on learning algorithms has focused on planning graphs that incorporate constraints and decision preferences. Overall, the Competence Development and Infrastructure Program is well conceived and imple- mented. Significant applied research is being performed, and coordination with other programs inte- grates this work with the overall efforts at ISD. The staff is capable and includes individuals well known and respected in the wider scientific and academic communities. The mix of senior and junior research- ers provides a strong base for future growth. More than 30 publications and a recent Ph.D. dissertation are indicative of the good visibility and external involvement of this program. Progress in the important areas discussed above is responsive to the recommendations of this panel from last year. The goal of the Critical Infrastructure Protection Program is to increase the security of computer systems that control production and distribution in critical infrastructure industries including indus- trial utilities; processing industries such as oil and gas, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper; and consumer products and discrete-parts manufacturing industries. The long-term objective of the program is to integrate security engineering into the industrial automation life cycle, including design, implementation, configuration, maintenance, and decommissioning. The outcome should be a reduced likelihood of successful cyberattack on the nation's infrastructure.
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138 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 ISD has taken the lead in forming the Process Control Security Requirements Forum (PCSRF), with representation from related industries, concerned government and private agencies, and NIST divisions. PCSRF's goal is to increase the security of industrial control systems through the definition and appli- cation of a common set of information security requirements for these systems. The NIST process control testbed is structured to develop and disseminate best security practices and validate security standards for the acquisition, development, and retrofit of industrial control sys- tems. The testbed is well planned and offers a variety of testing opportunities required to realize its objectives. ISD also serves as PCSRF liaison with the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA) Manufacturing and Control Security SP-99 Committee, with the long-term goal of devel- oping standards to validate the security practices of manufacturing sites. Program Relevance and Effectiveness NIST has been a leader in the development of tools and standards to support product representation underlying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/computer-aided engineering (CAD/ CAM/CAE) systems used in product development and manufacturing. The STEP standards have been extensively developed over the past 15 years, and NIST has been a leader in the development of the underlying concepts as well as the dissemination of those technologies to industry. The STEP standards are currently used in several industries, and international standards organizations are moving toward wider adoption. Much of the basic STEP development has matured and is beyond the research horizon of NIST programs. With the Intelligent Open Architecture Control of Manufacturing Systems Program, ISD can have significant impact on industry through the promulgation of standards for intelligent systems. To achieve relevance, ISD is striving to enroll support from industrial users, NC control suppliers, and industry trade organizations, and it has realized some success. This support is critical for the program to realize its objectives. The program has gained appreciable momentum. Over the last 3 years, its objectives have evolved appropriately to meet realistic expectations in industry. The program team is reaching out to potential customers, primarily production equipment users and some user trade associations. Reaching out to equipment suppliers whose products have to be modified to apply the technology is critical to the success of this program if practically feasible standards are to be realized. These manufacturers can play a unique role in driving future directions of the program and ensuring an opportunity for the integration of new methods into products. Collaboration with other trade associations, such as the Machine Tool Builders Association, is also encouraged. In terms of expenditure, the Intelligent Control of Mobility Systems (ICMS) Program is the largest program in ISD, but a significant portion of the expenditure on this program was obtained from other agencies (OA). While the strong dependence on OA funding may make the program vulnerable, de- pending on such funding's stability, ICMS has succeeded in past years in securing such funding. Furthermore, the program plan incorporates long-term support of the Army Research Laboratory's (ARL's) autonomous mobility program at least to FY 2005, and at this stage the NIST ICMS group and ARL appear to be inseparable partners for the foreseeable future. The Industrial Material Handling and the Performance Measures for Mobile Robots Programs help to make the technology developed in the DOD UGV program element relevant to civilian manufacturing problems. ISD is looking into several alternative approaches to increased transfer of the technology of the ICMS Program. Potential new customers such as the United States Postal Service and John Deere's construction equipment division show interest in the NIST ICMS technology. ISD should continue to identify and broaden the customer base of the ICMS technology.
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 139 The Competence Development and Infrastructure Program has its closest alignment and influence on the ICMS Program and related externally funded projects. There appear to be opportunities to explore closer linkages to other manufacturing-related ISD and MEL projects that would take advantage of the competence built in the Research and Engineering of Intelligent Systems (REIS) Program. The US CAR stamping project is one example of such linkages; basic modeling and architecture are impor- tant to this program. Other examples include more prominent linkage to model-based machine control- ler projects (asking how learning and adaptive control can be incorporated); a stronger role in projects with the United States Postal Service and related projects in which multivehicle systems will have practical applications; and involvement in critical infrastructure protection, in which the analysis of risk and performance should depend on more detailed models of control, communications, and sensitivity. The strength of ISD continues to be in applied research with effective demonstration and prototype development of direct interest to a wide community of users. The Competence Development and Infrastructure Program supports these commitments through the development of enabling technologies. Improving the breadth of these applications would align the program more closely with its stated goal of integration, enabling U.S. manufacturers to provide breakthrough levels of productivity. The Critical Infrastructure Protection Program is relevant to the war against terrorism and the need for protection of the nation's infrastructure. Multitudes of customers look to NIST for the development and standardization of critical security elements of their resources. Division Resources The replacement of the previous Hexapod machine by the Fryer 4-Axis Lathe and the DMG 5-Axis Machining Center is a very positive step. These new machines are more consistent with equipment currently used in industry, and the acquisition of this equipment will promote collaboration and rel- evance of the interoperability programs. MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS INTEGRATION DIVISION Technical Merit The Manufacturing Systems Integration Division (MSID) promotes economic growth by working with industry to develop and apply interoperability measurements and standards for software used in all aspects of manufacturing. The division's key objectives are rigorously defined technical data standards and protocols, realistic pilot programs involving vendors and industrial partners, and software and interoperability testing services accessible to small and medium-sized business. The division maintains commercial and research testbeds and engages with appropriate organizations in the standards process to meet these objectives. The MSID is organized in four groups: Design and Process, Enterprise Systems, Manufacturing Simulation and Modeling, and Manufacturing Standards Metrology. The technical strategy of MSID is to progress toward self-integrating systems by developing and implementing tactical and strategic projects within the following five programs: · Product Engineering, which includes projects in parametric exchange, design-analysis integra- tion, assembly, tolerance representation, heterogeneous material representation, and knowledge repre- sentation, for next-generation CAD systems;
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140 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 Predictive Process Engineering, which includes projects in process metrology, process represen- tation, process modeling, and process application; · Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization, which includes projects on distributed manufactur- ing simulation environments, manufacturing simulation transactions, reference data sets, and simulation templates and model formats; · Integrated Nano-to-Millimeter Manufacturing Technologies, which includes projects in atomic- scale measurement manipulation and manufacturing and molecular-scale measurement manipulation and assembly; and · Manufacturing Enterprise Integration, which includes projects on a B2B interoperability testbed and self-integrating systems. Additional projects are grouped under the rubric of special activities. The division is engaged in work at several levels of abstraction in system integration capabilities: standards and measurements, process representation, integration, modeling capabilities, and the use of software to enhance manufacturing performance. The programs and projects support the foundational areas of interoperability and metrology (with the exception of the Integrated Nano-to-Millimeter Manu- facturing Technologies Program, which supports a strategic, multidivisional focus). The projects are of high quality and are staffed by competent scientists and engineers. The Process Specification Language and the Manufacturing Simulation projects are particularly impressive. Staff members are generally enthusiastic and expert in their areas of endeavor. They frequently publish the results of their high-quality work; they participate in major conferences, standards organiza- tions, and industry consortia; and they have organized and led a number of strategic workshops during the past year. The MSID has continued its significant effort to implement a program structure that would enable it to improve performance, focusing this year at the project level. Projects have been technically aligned with the programs and the mission. The division should continue these efforts, increasing focus on the areas of outreach and customer participation. MSID has also started and should continue a program- matic effort to attract and train appropriate personnel in the areas of formal specifications, semantic representation, knowledge-based systems, ontologies, and software conformance. MSID's increasing emphasis on cross-divisional work is appropriate. Since the division is involved in information- and knowledge-based manufacturing, there should be significant overlap between projects in this division and other MEL divisions. In order to address project life-cycle issues, MSID management should define criteria for success and criteria leading to the termination of a project. Almost all of the programs reviewed this year by the panel are scheduled to end at the same time; MSID management should consider whether it is feasible and useful to arrange a mix of programs, with some beginning while others are ending and still others are in the middle of the program time line. The division should also investigate the inclusion of electromechanical assemblies in the Product Engineering Program. Program Relevance and Effectiveness MSID's main objective is to help manage the ever-increasing complexity of the manufacturing environment, in which new systems continually make old ones obsolete and may perform new functions not previously considered part of the manufacturing enterprise; in which new languages, software, operating systems, hardware platforms, software platforms, and communication protocols are intro- duced with little coordination or external control; and in which competition is fierce and cost-conscious- ness is increasingly prevalent.
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MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS 14 As a result of these challenges, MSID is heavily engaged in work on interoperability issues, which involves understanding how parts of the manufacturing enterprise work together and how this working together may be automated in response to systems with a complexity that may be beyond human capabilities to understand. The rapidity of change encourages manufacturing engineers to work with MSID, which fills a niche in the manufacturing environment not filled by other university, national laboratory, or vendor programs. To address its objectives, MSID is faced with the challenge of balancing resources and attention between applied research (demanding rapidly available practical solutions) and basic research (involv- ing issues that require longer time periods to develop theories and solutions). It appears that MSID is managing this difficult role. The scientists and engineers are frequently both technically competent and practically oriented, expressing a desire that the results of their efforts be incorporated into practical manufacturing activities. They also bring together the academic, industrial, and government communities, fostering communication and cooperation between these often-disparate groups. MSID disseminates results to the user communities by participation in relevant organizations, consortia, user group meetings, conferences, and seminars. The division's effective job of disseminating results should be augmented by a strategic outreach plan for marketing to customers. This is especially important at a time of shrinking budgets. Division Resources As of March 2003, there were 31 full-time permanent employees of MSID, 23 of whom were in technical positions; this reflects no change from last year. There were, in addition, 6 other full-time staff, who include postdoctoral research associates, students, faculty, and other nonpermanent people 2 more than last year. There were 30 guest researchers, many of whom have long-term associations to the MSID programs. The current number of guest researchers is less than last year: short-term appointments have been cut back, while long-term commitments are being maintained. The majority of MSID staff, therefore, is composed of nonpermanent staff. The panel is concerned that there may be little to no ability to replace key personnel. The flat or slightly decreasing budget and the decrease of the permanent staff are the two important related concerns. MSID has leveraged resources by using guest researchers, creating an interesting mix of permanent and flux employees, but it is concerned with maintaining institutional memory and core competencies. Furthermore, the permanent staff is typically the source of future management, and if this group contin- ues to shrink, it will have long-term implications on MSID. Postdoctoral positions are an important asset to MSID, but the division has not had much success at attracting postdoctoral candidates. The reasons for this difficulty should be explored and, if feasible, corrected. Significant encouragement has been given to research staff members to further their knowl- edge through seminars, short courses, invited lectures, and enrollment in higher-degree programs. This encouragement should continue. While there has been little overt change in the number of projects over the past year (only one project gracefully ended), there was a subtle movement in shifting the effort of several people (e.g., refocusing away from work on behalf of committee memberships toward work in new research direc- tions in interoperability). The nanotechnology effort was refocused successfully. It is anticipated that several projects will end in the current fiscal year, and approaches such as refocusing should continue, where effective and appropriate, so that the newer efforts such as homeland security and health care can be supported in spite of constrained funding and staffing.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: