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An Assessment of the ational Institute of Standards and Technology easurement and Standards Laboratories F I S C A L Y E A R 2 0 0 3 Board on Assessment of NIST Proorams Division on Engineering and PhysicarSciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS · 500 Fifth Street, N.W. · Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the board and panels responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. SB1341-02-C-0004 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Assessment of NIST Programs National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stienre, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recog- nizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the govern- ment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-acac~emies.org
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BOARD ON ASSESSMENT OF NIST PROGRAMS LINDA CAPUANO, Honeywell, Chair DAVID C. BONNER, Cabot Corporation HERWIG KOGELNIK, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies MARK B. MYERS, Consultant, Unionville, Pennsylvania THOMAS A. SAPONAS, Agilent Technologies EUGENE SEVIN, Consultant, Hillcrest, Ohio Ex Officio Members ROBERT A. ALTENKIRCH, New Jersey Institute of Technology ROBERT L. BYER, Stanford University ALAN CAMPION, University of Texas, Austin CONSTANCE J. CHANG-HASNAIN, University of California, Berkeley ROSS B. COROTIS, University of Colorado at Boulder RICHARD A. CURLESS, UNOVA Manufacturing Technologies MARVIN F. DeVRIES, University of Wisconsin at Madison ROBERT R. DOERING, Texas Instruments ALBERT M. ERISMAN, Institute for Business, Technology, and Ethics KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM Microelectronics Division C. WILLIAM GEAR, NEC Research Institute, Inc. DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Agere Systems (retired) DUNCAN T. MOORE, University of Rochester JAMES W. SERUM, SciTek Ventures Board Stay SCOTT T. WEIDMAN, Director (until May 19, 2003) JAMES P. McGEE, Director (as of May 19, 2003) PATRICIA P. PAULETTE, Senior Program Officer BARBARA JONES, Administrative Assistant v
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Marylyn Hoy Bennett, International SEMATECH, William B. Bridges, California Institute of Technology (Emeritus), Francois J. Castaing, Castaing & Associates, Gregory R. Choppin, Florida State University, Paul M. DeLuca, Jr., University of Wisconsin, William F. Eddy, Carnegie Mellon University, Gerard M. Faeth, University of Michigan, Placid M. Ferreira, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Arlene A. Garrison, University of Tennessee, Walter W. Henslee, The Dow Chemical Company, James E. McGrath, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Gary J. Minden, University of Kansas, John F. O'Hanlon, University of Arizona, Kozo Saito, University of Kentucky, and Julia R. Weertman, Northwestern University. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of . . via
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. . . vile AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Norman Hackerman, of the Robert A. Welch Foundation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring board and the institution.
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Contcuts Part I Overall Assessment SYNOPSIS OF THE 2003 ASSESSMENT THE ST^TE OF THE L^BOR^TORIES Part II Summary Assessments of the Ind1~1dus1 Lsborstor1es 2 ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRIC^L ENGINEERING L^BOR^TORY H^NuF^CTuRING ENGINEERING L^BOR^TORY 4 CHEMICAL SCONCE AND TECHNOLOGY L^BOR^TORY PHYSICS L^BOR^TORY MATERIALS SCONCE ANY ENGINEERING L^BOR^TORY BUILDING AND nRE RESEARCH L^BOR^TORY 8 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY L^BOR^TORY 1~ 3 15 25 35 43 ~3 ~1 71
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x AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS LABORATORIES: FY 2003 Part III Division-Level Reviews 9 ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Electricity Division, 87 Semiconductor Electronics Division, 96 Radio-Frequency Technology Division, 104 Electromagnetic Technology Division, 110 Optoelectronics Division, 115 Magnetic Technology Division, 120 10 MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Precision Engineering Division, 127 Manufacturing Metrology Division, 132 Intelligent Systems Division, 136 Manufacturing Systems Integration Division, 139 11 CHEMICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY DIVISION REVIEWS Biotechnology Division, 143 Process Measurements Division, 147 Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, 153 Physical and Chemical Properties Division, 157 Analytical Chemistry Division, 164 12 PHYSICS LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Electron and Optical Physics Division, 175 Atomic Physics Division, 178 Optical Technology Division, 183 Ionizing Radiation Division, 188 Time and Frequency Division, 197 Quantum Physics Division, 201 . 13 MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY DIVISION REVIEWS Ceramics Division, 207 Materials Reliability Division, 211 Metallurgy Division, 215 Polymers Division, 218 Review of the NIST Center for Neutron Research, 222 14 BUILDING AND FIRE RESEARCH LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Materials and Construction Research Division, 235 Building Environment Division, 241 Fire Research Division, 249 87 127 143 175 207 235
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CONTENTS Office of Applied Economics, 252 Codes and Standards Activities, 255 15 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY: DIVISION REVIEWS Mathematical and Computational Sciences Division, 257 Advanced Networking Technologies Division, 260 Computer Security Division, 263 Information Access Division, 267 Software Diagnostics and Conformance Testing Division, 271 Statistical Engineering Division, 273 Convergent Information Systems Division, 276 APPENDIXES A Charge to the Board and Panels B Agendas for Meetings of the Board on Assessment of NIST Programs C Functions of NIST D NIST Organization E Acronyms and Abbreviations Biographies of Board Members x~ 257 281 285 289 291 295 303
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