ment of research faculty as residency educators and mentors. A review of personal factors revealed motivation and drive, family demands, gender, and race as important factors relevant to research training in psychiatry. This finding led the committee to conclude that a more diverse group of trainees needs to be persuaded that research careers in psychiatry are worthwhile. Greater financial incentives (through stipend supplements or debt repayment) and more aggressive promotion of the benefits of participation in psychiatric research are recommended as strategies to enhance trainee recruitment.
In addition to time and money, overarching themes of this report are that residency-based research is limited because of the demands of clinical training, and thus that successful research training typically requires the linkage of residency to postresidency research fellowships. There is little evidence to support any particular approach to training patient-oriented investigators. Given that the existence of a large research effort (i.e., many investigators and substantial funding) is the most salient feature of successful programs, child and adolescent psychiatry divisions and small programs in general will likely require outside collaborations to develop a critical mass of resources for effective research training. Finally, while there are numerous efforts under way to enhance research training in psychiatric residency, the committee recommends the formation of a national coordinating body to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies toward that goal.
Mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, severe depression or anxiety, and substance abuse, represent some of the most debilitating and vexing of human diseases. Recent years have seen considerable advances in the brain and behavioral sciences, but the burden of mental disorders remains very high, accounting for approximately 15 percent of all human disease (Murray and Lopez, 1996). Understanding of the mechanisms underlying such disorders is expanding at a tremendous rate, but remains limited compared with the vast complexity of human neurobiology and behavior (Charney et al., 2001; Kandel et al., 2000). Carefully formulated research in a variety of disciplines is clearly needed to accelerate progress in mental health care, and this research needs to be skillfully aimed at questions relevant to patients who suffer from or are at risk for mental disorders.