Appendix B
Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage

The following table describes funding sources for mental health research that are available to undergraduate students, medical students, residents, fellows, junior faculty, and institutions that train individuals across this entire educational spectrum. Federal and other sources of funding are listed.



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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Appendix B Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage The following table describes funding sources for mental health research that are available to undergraduate students, medical students, residents, fellows, junior faculty, and institutions that train individuals across this entire educational spectrum. Federal and other sources of funding are listed.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Undergraduate Summer Internship Program in Biomedical Research1 NIH >8 weeks Stipend: <$2,400/month Interns work at a designated NIH-funded research laboratory. Also available to graduate students. Mental Health Research Education Grant (R25)2 NIH/NIMH 1–5 years <$250,000/year in direct costs with indirect costs of 8%; 3–5 grants awarded each year Funds educational programs for all levels of mental health researchers, including residents. Scholars Program3 Stanley Medical Research Institute 6–8 weeks >$15,000/year; supported 174 students in 2001 Began in 1989. Provides research exposure to undergraduates and medical students. Medical School Research Fellowship Program4 NIH >10 weeks ≤$2,500/month; 80–90 selected each year First- through third-year graduate students work at NIH-cooperating institutions and attend grand rounds, lectures, and seminars. ~30% success rate.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)5 NIH/NIGMS 7–8 years NRSA stipend; full tuition; institution allowance, <$6,000; funded 38 programs and 890 positions in 1999 Began in 1964. Provides combined M.D./Ph.D. degree. Outcome data show that graduates are more likely than M.D. graduates to have research support, hold academic positions, and apply for and receive NIH grants. Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Predoctoral M.D./Ph.D. Fellowship (F30)6 NIH/NIMH 6 years Stipend: $20,000; ≥60% of tuition; institution allowance: <$2,750 Provides intense research training. Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Predoctoral Fellowship (F31)7 NIH/NIMH 5 years Stipend: $20,000; ≥60% of tuition; institution allowance: <$2,750; NIH funded 200–400 applications annually from 1990 to 2001 Special eligibility for racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with disabilities. Clinical Elective Program8 NIMH 6–8 weeks Travel and rent subsidy: $300 Tutorial program for medical students who have completed psychiatry rotation.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Clinical Research Fellowship Program9 Doris Duke Charitable Foundation 1 year $20,000 plus health insurance Began in 2000. Available for third-year medical students who take a year out to participate in the program. Ten medical schools are selected for participation and can nominate at least 5 applicants. Residency PGY4 Residency Training10 NIMH 1 year Stipend: $46,000; infrastructure support: $2,500; supported 6 adult and 2 child psychiatrists in 2002 Available to outstanding PGY4 residents. Involvement in clinical research at state-of-the-art Magnus on Center. Jeanne Spurlock Research Fellowship in Drug Abuse and Addiction for Minority Medical Students11 AACAP and NIDA Summer (12 weeks) Stipend: $2,500; travel to AACAP meeting; 5 slots available Available for racial minority residents to conduct mentored research.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Jeanne Spurlock Minority Medical Student Clinical Fellowship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry12 AACAP Summer (12 weeks) Stipend: $2,500; travel to AACAP meeting; 14 slots available Available for racial minority residents to conduct mentored research. Health Services Research Scholars Program13 APIRE and GlaxoSmithKline   $7,000; 5 slots available Available to residents, fellows, and junior faculty to analyze data on mental health care costs and utilization. Funding available for mentoring and travel. Scholars in Research on Severe Mental Illness14 APIRE and Janssen Pharmaceuticals 2 years $5,000; travel to APA meeting Available to PGY1 to PGY3 residents interested in mental health research careers. Travel Grants15 AACAP and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals 6-day meeting $800 to travel to AACAP meeting; 50 awards available for child and adolescent psychiatrists Individual institutions receive award and select residents. General Resident Fellows Program16 AACAP and Eli Lilly 6-day meeting $1,500 to travel to AACAP meeting; 20 awards available for adult (general) psychiatrists Individual institutions receive award and select residents.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Presidential Scholar Award17 AACAP and Bristol-Myers Squibb 1 week $2,500 for travel to mentoring site and to AACAP meeting; 5 slots available Available to child and adolescent psychiatry residents interested in research and public policy. Research Colloquium for Junior Investigators18 APIRE and NIH institutes (NIAAA, NIDA, and NIMH) All-day workshop $1,000 for travel expenses; 45 awards available Began in 1996. Program guides and encourages senior residents, fellows, and junior faculty. Fellowship Clinical Research Curriculum Award (K30)19 NIH (administered by NHLBI) 5 years $200,000/year; funded 59 grants for $12 million in 2002 Supports creation or improvement of clinical research curriculum aimed at clinically trained individuals. Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Institutional Research Training Grant (T32)20 NIH 3–5 years Stipend: ≤$51,000; ≥60% of tuition; institution allowance: <$6,000; funded 1,000 for $134 million in 2002 Grant supports teaching and training of undergraduates, graduate students, residents (in limited circumstances), and fellows. Success rate in 2002 across NIH was 58%.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA for Individual Postdoctoral Fellows (F32)21 NIH 3 years Stipend: ≤$51,000; ≥60% of tuition; institution allowance: <$6,000; NIH funded 614 grants for ~$26 million in 2002 Began in 1974. Supports independent investigators to broaden research backgrounds. Success rate in 2002 was 40%. Clinical Associates Program (Psychiatry)22 NIMH 2 years Stipend: ≤$64,000, institutional support: $2,500; 6–13 slots available each year Program exposes fellows to clinical and basic research and focuses on clinical care of research subjects, research protocol development, and preparation of study results. M.D./Ph.D. Psychiatry Research Fellowship23 APIRE and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals 1 year Stipend: $45,000; 2 slots available/year Fellows are required to spend 85% effort on research activities. Severe Mental Illness Research Fellowship24 APIRE and GlaxoSmithKline 1 year Stipend: $45,000; 2 slots available/year Fellows are required to spend 85% effort on research training in severe mental illness. Institution may augment stipend if desired. Psychiatric Research Fellowship25 APIRE and Eli Lilly 1 year Stipend: $45,000; 2 slots available Began 1988. Supports postresidency psychiatrists who conduct research at 85% effort. Institution may augment stipend.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Klingenstein Third Generation Fellowship26 Esther A. and Joseph Klingenstein Fund 2 years Stipend: $30,000; 2–4 fellows selected each year Program provides support to study child and adolescent depression prior to applying for NIMH grant. Outcome data for 1998 to 2004 on 12 graduates: 8 are principal investigators on NIMH K or R awards; 5 have received NARSAD Young Investigator Awards. In total, they have published 48 articles, 33 abstracts, and 9 book chapters. Young Investigator Award Program27 NARSAD 1–2 years Stipend: $30,000; 175 awards in 2003. Began in 1987. Program funds research in serious mental illness, including schizophrenia and major affective disorders. Clinical Scholars Program28 The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2 years Stipend: $44,000; 905 scholars funded from 1973 through 2000 Began in 1973. Program trains young scientists in nonbiological disciplines important to medical care systems. Seven participating institutions offer these fellows hips. Most graduates have entered academic medicine.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Fellowship in Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology29 ACNP and GlaxoSmithKline 1 year Stipend: $45,000; institution: $10,000; travel to ACNP annual meetings Program seeks to increase the number of investigators in clinical neuropsychopharmacology. For fellows and junior faculty. Young Investigator Award30 Borderline Personality Disorder Research Foundation 2 years $75,000; 11 selected in 2003 Began in 2003. Program supports clinical and basic research. Markey Scholars Award31 Markey Foundation 7–8 years (2 years as fellow, 5 years as faculty) Stipend: $15,000+; institution: $200,000 over 5 years; 16 recipients selected annually From 1983 to 1997, 113 scholars conducted basic biomedical research as they transitioned from fellows to junior faculty members. Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences Program32 Burroughs Wellcome Fund 5 years; 14–26 selected annually $500,000 over 5 years Began in 1994. Program funds postdoctoral training and 3 years as faculty member to conduct biomedical research at 80% time. From 1995 to 1999, 77% obtained a faculty position, and 78% were principal investigators on one or more grants (mainly from NIH).

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Early Faculty Career Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01)33 NIH/NIMH 3–5 years Stipend: $90,000; infrastructure: $50,000; NIMH funded 124 grants at a cost of $15.7 million in 2002 Grant requires 75% effort. Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Award (K08)34 NIMH 3–5 years Stipend: $90,000; infrastructure: $50,000; NIMH funded 93 grants at a cost of $14 million in 2002 Grant requires 75% effort. Provides mentored research experiences for individuals seeking to become clinical researchers, and integrates didactic with lab/field research. Behavioral Science Track Award for Rapid Transition (B/START)35 NIMH 1 year $50,000; NIMH funded 266 grants from 1994 to 2001; 20–55 applicants are funded each year Funds available for research projects related to behavioral science. Applicants must have no more than 5 years postdoctoral experience.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Small Grants (R03)36 NIMH 1–2 years $50,000/year in direct costs Funds exploratory studies or efforts to develop new methods or techniques. Exploratory/Development Grant Program (R21)37 NIMH 2 years $275,000 over 2 years Topics include pilot effectiveness trials for mental disorders, therapeutic effectiveness protocol development, mental health intervention research, and adherence to interventions for mental disorders. First Independent Research Support and Transition Award (R29)38 NIMH 5 years $350,000 for 5 years Discontinued in 1998. Program provided awardees with skills to apply for future grants. NIMH Research Career Award for Transition to Independence (K22)39 NIMH 5 years (3 intramural, 2 extramural) Intramural phase: $140,000/year in direct costs (stipend: $90,000); NIH funded 92 grants at $13 million in 2002 Provides research training (both at NIMH and at an extramural institution) for postdoctorates with 2–5 years of training. Trainees are required to give 75% effort to research in the extramural phase.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23)40 NIH 3–5 years Stipend: $90,000; infrastructure: $50,000; NIMH funded 98 grants at a cost of $15 million in 2002 Began in 1998. Award requires 75% effort. A survey of K23 awardees indicates that it is good preparation for an R01, but that clinical time and funding for expenses and administrative costs are limited. Young Faculty Award for Research Development in Biological Psychiatry41 APIRE and GlaxoSmithKline   Stipend: $45,000 Supports research on mood disorders and/or anxiety disorders. Elaine Schlosser Lewis Pilot Research Award for Attention Disorders42 AACAP and Eli Lilly 1 year $9,000 Award given to those with full-time academic appointments, less than 2 years of postgraduate experience, and a focus on research on attention disorders. Travel Fellowship43 Bristol-Myers Squibb and ACNP 1 week Travel funds; 12 fellowships awarded in 2002 For Ph.D. with less than 5 years of postgraduate experience or M.D. with less than 10–12 years of postgraduate experience.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Institutional Support Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE)44 NCRR/NIH 5 years $1.5 million/year (with $500,000 one-time additional support); 15 institutions funded in 2002; state can submit no more than 3 applications Provides infrastructure support to states that historically have received low NIH support. Biomedical Research Infrastructure Network (BRIN)45 NCRR/NIH 3 years $2 million/year; state cannot submit more than 2 applications Began in 1993. Provided for institutions to build research infrastructure in 23 states that have accounted for only 8% of research grants awarded by the NIH in 1998. Research Project Grant (R01)46 NIMH/NIH 2–5 years Varies (requests for direct costs of >$500,000/year require prior approval from institute) Investigator-initiated or investigator response to specific research areas (e.g., NIMH has award for studies on mental disorders and AIDS). NIMH awarded 420 grants at a cost of $151 million in 2002.

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform Federal and Other Funding Mechanisms Listed and Summarized by Career Stage Grant Title Funding Agency Duration Magnitude Description Minority Research Infrastructure Support Program (M-RISP) (R24)47 NIMH 3–5 years $400,000/year in direct costs Supports both institutional research development and individual investigator research projects. Institutions must have significant enrollment (>30%) of minority students or must collaborate with a Native American tribe. NOTES: AACAP = American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; ACNP = American College of Neuropsychopharmacology; APIRE = American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education; NARSAD = National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression; NCRR = National Center for Research Resources; NHLBI = National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; NIAAA = National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; NIDA = National Institute on Drug Abuse; NIGMS = National Institute of General Medical Services; NIH = National Institutes of Health; NIMH = National Institute of Mental Health; and NRSA = National Research Service Award SOURCES: 1Summer Internship Program in Biomedical Research Catalog. [Online]. Available: http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/catalog/program.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]. 2Mental Health Research Education Grants (PAR-02-087). [Online]. Available: http://grants2.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-02-087.html [accessed May 6, 2003]. 3Stanley Scholars Program. [Online]. Available: http://www.stanleyresearch.org/programs/stanley_scholars.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]; Personal communication, K. Wilson, Stanley Medical Research Institute, December 9, 2002. 4Summer Research Fellowship Program Catalog. [Online]. Available: http://www.training.nih.gov/student/srfp/catalog/index.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]; Frequently Asked Questions. [Online]. Available: http://www.training.nih.gov/student/srfp/faq.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]. 5The Careers and Professional Activities of Graduates of the NIGMS Medical Scientist Training Program, September 1998. [Online]. Available: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/reports/mstpstudy/mstp-print.html#summary [accessed May 6, 2003]; AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges).

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform 1999. For the Health of the Public: Ensuring the Future of Clinical Research. Washington, DC: AAMC; Training and Career Grant Mechanisms. [Online]. Available: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/funding/ee [accessed May 6, 2003]. 6Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Awards for M.D./Ph.D. Fellowships. [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-99-089.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Fellowship Information. [Online]. Available: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/grants/Fellowship1.pdf [accessed May 8, 2003]. 7National Research Service Awards for Individual Predoctoral Fellows. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-125.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Predoctoral Fellowship Award for Minority Students (F31). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-069.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Predoctoral Fellowship Awards for Students with Disabilities (F31). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-068.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Number of Fellowship (F31) Applications Reviewed and Awarded, Fiscal Years 1990–2001. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/training/data/tf_trends/sld014.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Fellowship Information. [Online]. Available: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/grants/Fellowship1.pdf [accessed May 8, 2003]. 8Clinical Electives Program. [Online]. Available: http://intramural.nimh.nih.gov/training/cep.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; Research and Training Opportunities at the National Institutes of Health – Clinical Electives Program. [Online]. Available: http://www.training.nih.gov/student/cep/index.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]. 9Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship Program for Medical Students. [Online]. Available: http://ddcf.aibs.org/crf2000/index.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]. 10PGY4 Residency Training Program. [Online]. Available: http://intramural.nimh.nih.gov/training/pgy4.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; PGY-4 Psychiatric Residency Program. [Online]. Available: http://intramural.nimh.nih.gov/training/pgy4-programexp.pdf [accessed May 6, 2003]; Personal communication, B. Kaplan, NIMH, July 29, 2002. 11Jeanne Spurlock Research Fellowship in Drug Abuse and Addiction for Minority Medical Students. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/research/Spurlck1.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; Summer Fellowship Application Jeanne Spurlock Research Fellowship in Drug Abuse and Addiction for Minority Medical Students. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/awards/2003/sda.pdf [accessed May 6, 2003]. 12Jeanne Spurlock Minority Medical Student Clinical Fellowship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/research/Spurlck2.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; Summer Fellowship Application Jeanne Spurlock Minority Medical Student Clinical Fellowship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/awards/2003/cfcap.pdf [accessed May 6, 2003].

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform 13American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education/GlaxoSmithKline 2003 Health Services Research Scholars Program Request for Proposals. [Online]. Available: http://www.psychiatry.org/res_res/Health_Services.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 14American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education/Janssen Scholars in Research on Severe Mental Illness. [Online]. Available: http://www.psych.org/res_res/janssen.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 15AACAP Travel Grant Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/awards/pfizerTravel.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 16AACAP Travel Grant Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/awards/lillyTravel.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 17Presidential Scholar Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.aacap.org/awards/pres.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 18Request for Nominations APA’s Research Colloquium for Junior Investigators. [Online]. Available: http://www.psych.org/res_res/03colloquium1903.doc [accessed May 6, 2003]; Personal communication, E. Guerra, American Psychiatric Association, June 19, 2002. 19Clinical Research Curriculum Award. [Online]. Available: http://grants2.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-OD-00-002.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Research Training Opportunities: K30 Clinical Research Curriculum Award. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/training/k30.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Career Development Awards, Fiscal Year 2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/careerdev02.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 20NIH National Research Service Award Institutional Research Training Grants (T32). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-02-109.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NRSA Stipend Increase and Other Budgetary Changes Effective for Fiscal Year 2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-02-028.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Competing Applications for F32 and T32 Awards, Fiscal Year 1996–2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/f32t329602.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 21National Research Service Awards for Individual Postdoctoral Fellows (F32). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-104.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards for Individual Postdoctoral Fellows (F32). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-03-067.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Number of Fellowship (F32) Applications Reviewed and Awarded Fiscal Years 1990–2001. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/training/data/tf_trends/sld015.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Competing Applications for F32 and T32 Awards, Fiscal Year 1996–2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/f32t329602.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Fellowship Information. [Online]. Available: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/grants/Fellowship1.pdf [accessed May 8, 2003].

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform 22 NIMH Clinical Associates Program. [Online]. Available: http://intramural.nimh.nih.gov/training/cap.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; Training Programs for Physicians – Psychiatry. [Online]. Available: http://www.training.nih.gov/clinical/physician/asp/index.asp [accessed May 6, 2003]; Personal communication, B. Kaplan, NIH, July 29, 2002. 23APIRE/Wyeth Pharmaceuticals M.D./Ph.D. Psychiatric Research Fellowship. [Online]. Available: http://www.psych.org/res_res/wyeth.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 24APIRE/GlaxoSmithKline Severe Mental Illness Psychiatric Research Fellowship. [Online]. Available: http://www.psych.org/res_res/gskmental_illness.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 25Application Guidelines for the APIRE/Lilly Psychiatric Research Fellowship. [Online]. Available: http://www.psych.org/res_res/lilly.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 26Fellowships. [Online]. Available: http://www.ktgf.org/fellow.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Personal communication, Y. Moore, Klingenstein Third Generation Foundation, December 6, 2002. 27NARSAD’s Young Investigator Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.narsad.org/research/yiprogram.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Year 2004 Guidelines NARSAD’s Young Investigator Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.narsad.org/research/yigdlns.html [accessed May 6, 2003]. 28Call for Applications: The Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.uams.edu/rwjcsp/ [accessed May 6, 2003]; Clinical Scholars Program. [Online]. Available: http://www.rwjf.org/reports/npreports/PROGRAM%20STRUCTURE%20AND%20OPERATIONS [accessed May 6, 2003]; AAMC. 1999. For the Health of the Public: Ensuring the Future of Clinical Research. Washington, DC: AAMC. 292003 GlaxoSmithKline Fellowship in Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology. [Online]. Available: http://www.acnp.org/fellowship.php [accessed May 6, 2003]. 302003 Awards. [Online]. Available: http://www.borderlineresearch.org/guidelines/index.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; BPDRF Young Investigator Award 2003 Guidelines. [Online]. Available: http://www.borderlineresearch.org/guidelines/bpdrfyoung_investigator_guidelines.pdf [accessed May 5, 2003]. 31 King J. 1989. Lucille Markey trust sets agenda for going out of business. The Scientist 3(10):17; NRC (National Research Council). 1994. The Funding of Young Investigators in theBiological and Biomedical Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; Pion G, Ionescu-Pioggia M. 2003. Bridging postdoctoral training and a faculty position: Initial outcomes of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Awards in the biomedical sciences. Academic Medicine 78 (2):177–185

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Research Training in Psychiatry Residency: Strategies for Reform 32 Pion G, Ionescu-Pioggia M. 2003. Bridging postdoctoral training and a faculty position: Initial outcomes of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Awards in the biomedical sciences. Academic Medicine 78(2):177–185. 33NIMH Policy Update for Career Awards (K-Series). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/noticefiles/NOT-MH-02-001.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Mentored Research Scientist Development Award –Individual Award (K01). [Online]. Available: http://grants2.nih.gov/training/careerdev/mentoredresearchk01 [accessed May 6, 2003]; Trends in K Applications and Awards—FY 1994–FY 2001. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/training/data/K_FY2001/index.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Career Development Awards, Fiscal Year 2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/careerdev02.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 34Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Award (K08). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-00-003.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Policy Update for Career Awards (K-Series). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-MH-02-001.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Career Development Awards, Fiscal Year 2002. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/careerdev02.htm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 35Behavioral Science Track Award for Rapid Transition (B/START). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-00-119.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Application Instructions for Revised Behavioral Science Track Award for Rapid Transition (B/START) Applications (Addendum to PAR-00-119). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-MH-01-004.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; Chernoff NN. 2002. NIMHB/START grants are starting blocks for new PIs. APS Observer 15(8):1–19. 36NIMH Small Grants Program. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-99-140.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Small Grants Program. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-03-039.html [accessed May 6, 2003]. 37NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Award (R21). [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-03-107.html [accessed May 6, 2003]. 38PA for First Independent Research Support and Transition (FIRST) Award. [Online]. Available: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/grants/research/first.cfm [accessed May 6, 2003]. 39NIMH Research Career Award for Transition to Independence. [Online]. Available: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-01-065.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIMH Policy Update for Career Awards (K-Series). [Online]. Available: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-MH-02-001.html [accessed May 6, 2003]; NIH Career Development Awards, Fiscal Year 2002. http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/award/training/careerdev02.htm [accessed May 6, 2003].

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