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13io,qraphicat Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 83 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D. C www.nap. emu . .

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-08699-X (BOOK) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-52769-4 (PDF) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2003 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE J. DESMOND CLARK BY FRED WENDORF LEOPOLDO MAXIMO FALICOV BY MANUEL CARDONA, MARVIN L. COHEN, AND STEVEN G. LOUIE HAROLD P. FURTH BY T. KENNETH FOWLER HOMER DUPRE HAGSTRUM BY PHILIP W. ANDERSON AND THEODORE H. GEBALLE SEYMOUR S. KETY BY LOUIS SOKOLOFF EDWARD F. KNIPLING BY PERRY ADKISSON AND JAMES TUMLINSON HEINZ ADOLF LOWENSTAM BY3OSEPH L. KIRSCHVINK . . Vll 3 19 35 47 61 81 95

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V1 CONTENTS CLEMENT LAWRENCE MARKERT BY GERALD M. KIDDER PETER MEYER BY EUGENE N. PARKER ALFRED NISONOFF BY LISA A. STEINER, KATHERINE L. KNIGHT, AND J. DONALD CAPRA SHERWIN ROSEN BY EDWARD P. LAZEAR ARTHUR SCHAWLOW BY STEVEN CHU AND CHARLES H. TOWNES CHARLES GALD SIBLEY BY ALAN H. BRUSH JOSEPH SLEPIAN BY T. KENNETH FOWLER GEORGE DAVIS SNELL BY N. AVRION MITCHISON SIDNEY UDENFRIEND BY HERBERT WEISSBACH AND BERNHARD WITKOP WARREN H. WAGNER, JR. BY DONALD R. FARRAR SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN BY ROLLIN D. HOTCHKISS ABEL WOLMAN BY M. GORDON WOLMAN JEFFRIES WYMAN BY ROBERT A. ALBERTY AND ENRICO DI CERA 2 4 61 77 197 217 241 253 27 30 321 345 363

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signecl the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, electec! for outstanding contributions to knowlecige, who can be callecl upon to advise the fecleral government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward in- creasing scientific knowlecige en c! to further the use of that knowlecige for the general goocI. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories en c! selectee! bibliogra- phies of cleceasec! members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the cliscipline en cl the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a recorc! of the life en c! work of our most clistinguishec! leaclers in the sci- ences, as witnessed en cl interpreted by their colleagues en cl peers. They form a biographical history of science in America an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the worIcI. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary . . V11

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