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Appendix B Commiltee Biographies ADETOKUNBO O. LUCAS, M.D. (Co-chair), was born in Nigeria and obtained his medical degree at Durham University, England. His post- graduate training in internal medicine, public health, and tropical medicine took him to Belfast, London, and Harvard University. He chaired the De- partment for Preventive and Social Medicine in Ibaden, Nigeria, until 1976. From 1976 to 1986, he directed the Tropical Diseases Research Programme of the World Health Organization, and from 1986 to 1990, he served as the chair of the Carnegie Corporation's Strengthening Human Resources in Developing Countries grant program. In 1990, Dr. Lucas was appointed professor of international health at the Harvard School of Public Health. He has served on the technical advisory boards of several national organi- zations and international agencies including the Rockefeller Foundation, the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, the Carter Center, and the Wel- come Trust Scientific Group on Tropical Medicine. He now chairs the Global Forum for Health Research. Dr. Lucas has received academic hon- ors from Harvard University and honorary degrees from Emory, Tulane, and Ibadan Universities. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Obstetri- cians and Gynaecologists and is one of the first foreign associates of the Institute of Medicine. BARBARA J. STOLL, M.D. (Co-chair), received her medical degree from Yale Medical School, completed a pediatric residency at Babies Hos- pital, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, and a neonatology fellowship at Emory University School of Medicine. She is currently professor of pedi- 220

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APPENDIX B 22 attics at Emory and vice-chair for research in the Department of Pediatrics. She spent four years working on issues of childhood disease and mortality at the International Center for Diarrhocal Disease Research, Bangladesh. In 1995-1996 she was a visiting scientist at the World Health Organization. She is currently a member of the Advisory Board for the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative of Save the Children, a member of the Society for Pediatric Research, the Perinatal Research Society, the American Pediatric Society, and a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Her extensive research and publications have focused on low birth weight and premature newborns, preventing and treating neonatal infections, and the global impact of neonatal infections. Dr. Stoll is on the Steering Committee of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and is one of the principal investigators of the collaborative network. In addition, Dr. Stoll practices neonatology at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. ANNA ALISlAHBANA, M.D., Ph.D., is professor emeritus of pediat- rics in the School of Medicine at Padjadjaran University in Indonesia and Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Peri- natal and Maternal and Child Care in Indonesia. She has studied many aspects of perinatal care, including community-based training of traditional birth attendants in rural areas. In addition, Dr. Alisjahbana has served as a technical consultant for the Asian Development Bank, World Health Orga- nization, United Nations Children's Fund, and the government of Indonesia on a number of programs to improve perinatal outcomes and early child development. She has published on a range topics including patterns of birthweight in rural Indonesia, prevention of hypothermia in low weight infants, ways to improve health care services to prevent maternal mortality, and appropriate technology for resuscitation of newborns. She is founder and chairperson of Surya Kanti Foundation, a nonprofit organization work- ing with children 0-5 years of age with developmental disabilities. The foundation clinic provides services to more than 8,000 patients per year. AB HAY BANG, M.D., M.P.H., received his M.P.H. from Johns Hop- kins School of Public Health. He is currently living, working, and conduct- ing research in Gadchiroli, India, where he is the director of the Society for Education, Action, and Research in Community Health. After establishing baseline data on birth outcomes in the Maharastra region of India, Dr. Bang is studying the efficacy of pairing trained village birth attendants with traditional birth attendants in rural settings in India. As a pediatrician, working in tandem with his wife, an obstetrician, he is providing care, training village birth workers, and monitoring the data on improved birth outcomes.

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222 . . REDUCING THE IMPACT OF BIRTH DEFECTS LAURA CAULFIELD, Ph.D., received her doctorate in international nutrition from Cornell University. In 1990, she joined the faculty of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and is currently associate professor in the Division of Human Nutrition, Department of International Health. Dr. Caulfield has studied the role of nutrition in improving birth outcomes in diverse populations, including the United States and Canada, Latin America, and South Asia. Currently, she is conducting research on the role of prenatal iron and zinc supplements for improving infant health in Peru. Dr. Caulfield has served as a consultant to the Pan American Health Orga- nization, the United States Agency for International Development, and nu- merous private voluntary organizations. She is a member of various societ- ies, including the Society for International Nutrition Research and the Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research, and is vice- chair of the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Interest Section of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences. ROBERT GOLDENBERG, M.D., received his medical training from Duke University. He is professor of public health and Charles E. Flowers Professor and Chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, where he also served as the irector of the Center for Obstetric Research for 10 years. He currently directs the Center for Research in Women's Health. Dr. Goldenberg was director of obstetrical services at Cooper Green Hospital in Birmingham from 1986 to 1989 and chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cooper Green Hospital from 1987 to 1991. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and chairman of the Membership Committee for Pediatrics, and Obstetrics and Gynecology. He has served on numerous advisory com- mittees, including the Council for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the National Institutes of Health Expert Panels on the Content of Prenatal Care and on Pregnancy, Birth, and the Infant Research Plan; and the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment Child Health Advisory Panel. Dr. Goldenberg has been the principal inves- tigator on major grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Dis- eases, the March of Dimes, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He has published extensively on preterm birth prediction, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal mortality, and maternal and neo- natal infectious disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. MARJORIE KOBLINSKY, Ph.D., received her doctorate in biochem- istry from Columbia University and also holds a certificate of community medicine and health from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Dr. Koblinsky is project director of MotherCare at the John Snow, Inc., Cen-

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APPENDIX B 223 ter for Women's Health where she is responsible for multiple projects aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating a community-based approach to improving maternal and neonatal health and nutrition in developing countries, including Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Guatemala. She has also been a program officer for the Ford Foundation and the Canadian International Development Research Center and a project director and research scientist at the International Center for Diarrhocal Disease Re- search in Bangladesh. Dr. Koblinsky has published on a range of topics related to maternal health and survival, including ways to define and measure maternal mortality and morbidity, methods for achieving healthy pregnancies and safe deliveries, and implementing and evaluating pro- grams in reproductive health and family planning. She is the 1993 recipi- ent of the National Council for International Health (NCIH) International Health Award, and her project, Mother- Care, was the 1998 recipient of the World Health Day Award, given by the American Association of World Health. MICHAEL KRAMER, M.D., received his M.D., pediatrics, and epide- miology training at the Yale University School of Medicine. Since 1978, he has been at the McGill University Faculty of Medicine and, since 1987, he has been a professor in the Departments of Pediatrics and of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. He is currently a distinguished scientist of the Medical Research Council of Canada. His research focuses on perinatal epidemiol- ogy and currently includes a multicenter randomized trial of the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Baby-Friendly Hos- pital Initiative to promote breastfeeding; development of new fetal growth standards based on early ultrasound-validated gestational age; international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality; and mechanisms and causal pathways underlying socioeconomic disparities in risk for preterm birth. AFFETTE McCAW-BINNS, Ph.D., received her doctorate in perinatal epidemiology from the University of Bristol in England. She is a lecturer in the Department of Community Health and Psychiatry at the University of the West Indies, Mona, in Kingston, Jamaica, and a visiting lecturer at the University of Connecticut School of Public Health. Her research is con- cerned with the epidemiology of perinatal deaths and maternal mortality in the Caribbean, as well as antenatal and perinatal care in that region. She has recently published Informing Maternal and Child Health Policy Through Research. Dr. McCaw-Binns is a member of the Pan American Health Organization's Technical and Advisory Group of the Regional Plan for Action for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality in the Americas.

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224 REDUCING THE IMPACT OF BIRTH DEFECTS KUSUM I. NATHOO, M.B., Ch.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., is associate professor of pediatrics and child health in the Medical School and member of the Clinical Epidemiology Unit at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. She has studied the effects of several infectious diseases on maternal and infant survival. Her research has addressed many topics ranging from the transmission of HIV from mother to infant and mortality within the first two years among infants born to HIV-infected women, to predictors of mortality in children hospitalized with diseases such as dysentery, bac- teremia, measles, and bronchopneumonia. Dr. Nathoo has contributed sig- nificantly through her research to the understanding of trends in child health and survival in Zimbabwe and in Africa. HARSHADKUMAR CHANDULAL SANGHVI, M.B., Ch.B., has more than 15 years of experience in Africa as a clinical service provider and university faculty and researcher in obstetrics and gynecology. In his cur- rent position as the medical director of the Maternal and Neonatal Program at the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics in Baltimore Maryland, he is responsible for the develop- ment of reproductive health training materials, especially those for mater- nal and neonatal health care. He is a senior associate at the School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. As the chair of his department at the University of Nairobi in Kenya, he played an instrumental role in the pro- motion of preservice training for medical students and postgraduates in all aspects of reproductive care. He has been involved in designing and imple- menting large-scale epidemiological studies including the Nairobi Birth Sur- vey and the four-country East Central and Southern African Maternal Mortality Study. His many publications include studies on adolescent health, family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and cervical cancer. JOE LEIGH SIMPSON, M.D., received his medical education and train- ing at Duke University and Cornell Medical College. Dr. Simpson is Ernst W. Bertner Chairman and Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology and pro- fessor of molecular and human genetics at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. His investigative pursuits center on reproductive genetics: prena- tat genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetics, genetics of spontaneous abortion, elucidation of disorders of sexual differentiation, and determina- tion of the causes of chromosomal nondisjunction. Dr. Simpson was 1993- 1994 president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 1994- 1998 president of the International Society of Prenatal Diagnosis, 1995-1998 president of the Society for Advancement of Contraception, and 1998-1999 president of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation. He is a member of the March of Dimes Scientific Advisory Board and was a member from 1995 to 1997 of the National Institute of Child Health and

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APPENDIX B 225 Human Development Advisory Council. In 1995 he was elected to the Institute of Medicine. He is treasurer or the American College of Medical Genetics and has assumed many responsibilities for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. He has published extensively in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, clinical genetics, and etiology of birth defects. Dr. Simpson has received major research funding from the March of Dimes, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Agency for Inter- national Development.

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