vacuum extraction), as well as the ability to administer antibiotics, sedatives (Valium, magnesium sulfate) and oxytocics (Ergometrine, Pitocin) IM or IV and IV fluids. It is recommended that there should be four basic obstetric care facilities per 500,000 people.

Basic essential obstetrical care facility:

Such a facility should manage major obstetric complications (e.g., eclampsia, severe anemia, and diabetes mellitus); monitor labor using a partograph; provide surgical procedures such as assisted delivery, removal of placenta, repair of perineal tears, manual vacuum aspiration; and manage other indirect complications associated with high rates of fetal mortality, including the need to resuscitate an asphyxiated baby.

Behavioral change:

Characterized as proceeding through four stages—precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance of a behavior—usually toward a healthy behavior.


A breakdown product of heme that normally circulates in plasma as a complex with albumin. It is taken up by the liver cells and conjugated to form bilirubin diglucuronide, which is excreted in bile.

Birth asphyxia:

Birth asphyxia is characterized by absent or depressed breathing at birth.

Birth defect:

Any structural or functional abnormality determined by factors operating largely before conception or during gestation.

Birth prevalence:

The number of individuals who have an attribute or disease at the time of birth divided by the population at risk of having the attribute or disease at the time of birth.

Birth weight:

The first weight of the baby after birth. The mean birth weight is 3.2 kg.

Capacity building:

Increasing the ability of a local institution to provide high-quality services appropriate to the local setting, which involves performance assessment and targeted strategies to improve staff competency, logistics, and other determinants of quality of care.

Case report and case series:

This report or series of reports describe an intervention provided to an individual or a small group and the outcome or outcomes experienced by a by the subject(s).

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