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OCR for page 334
Improving Birth Outcomes: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World Acronyms 3TC lamivudine ACTG AIDS Clinical Trials Group AFP Alpha-feto protein AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANC Antenatal care APFD Antepartum fetal death ARI Acute respiratory infection ART Antiretroviral therapy AZT zidovudine BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (to prevent tuberculosis) BEOC Basic essential obstetric care BMI Body mass index CARE Cooperative for Relief and Assistance Everywhere CDC Centers for Disease Control CEOC Comprehensive essential obstetric care CFR Case fatality rate CI Confidence interval CM Congenital malformations CMV Cytomegalovirus CNS Central nervous system CPD Cephalic-pelvic disproportion CRS Congenital rubella syndrome DALY Disability adjusted life years DHS Demographic health surveys
OCR for page 335
Improving Birth Outcomes: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World ECLAMC Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) ECV External cephalic version EmOC Emergency obstetric care EOC Essential obstetric care GDP Gross Domestic Product GNP Gross National Product Hg Hemoglobin HiB Hemophilus influenza Type B HIV Human immunodeficiency virus ICBDMS International Clearing House for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems ICD International Classification of Diseases IDD Iodine-deficiency disorders IDDM Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IMCI Integrated management of childhood illnesses IMMAT Deaths due to immaturity IMMPACT Initiative for maternal mortality programme assessment IMPAC Integrated management of pregnancy and childbirth IMR Infant mortality rate INCLEN International Clinical Epidemiology Network IOM Institute of Medicine of the U.S. National Academies IPFD Intrapartum fetal deaths IU International units IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction (formerly retardation) IV Intravenous LBW Low birth weight (less than 2.5 kilograms) MCH Maternal and child health MMR Maternal mortality rate NGO Nongovernmental organization NIH National Institutes of Health of the United States NMR Neonatal mortality rate NTD Neural tube defects NVP Nevirapine PHC Primary health care PIH Pregnancy-induced hypertension PMR Perinatal mortality rate PPH Postpartum hemorrhage PTB Preterm birth RCT Randomized, controlled trials RTI Reproductive tract infections SGA Small for gestational age
OCR for page 336
Improving Birth Outcomes: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World STD Sexually transmitted disease STI Sexually transmitted infection TB Tuberculosis TBA Traditional birth attendant UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development VHW Village health worker VLB Very low-birth-weight (less than 1,500 grams) WHO World Health Organization
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