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Outreach, Education, and Capacity Builcling Ocean exploration provides rich content that easily captures the imagi- nation of people of all ages. Any ocean exploration effort should seek to: bring new discoveries to the public in ways that infuse exploration into their daily lives and capture the inherent human interest in the ocean; enfranchise the global community in ocean exploration; and develop and foster collaborations among scientists and educators in ocean exploration. Strong education and outreach programs with global appl ications should be i ncorporated i nto the exploration program. Capacity bui Idi ng- not only to multiply the program's usefulness, but also to develop and conduct international ocean exploration must be integral to national and international ocean exploration programs. Because educational systems and cultures differ from one country to another, the responsibility for education and outreach must lie in the ocean exploration programs of each nation. National efforts also should build on each country's expertise through international exchange programs, training, and workshops to ensure broad dissemination of results. Documentaries and other media products are effective tools for educating people every- where, and they could be used to highlight scientific and archaeological exploration of the oceans within each nation's program. The exploration program should be recognized globally to enfranchise the global community. An international public awareness campaign on ocean exploration, including an international treaty or declaration for coop- eration on ocean exploration, a high-profile and visually exciting kick-off expedition, and the attendant media activities and presentations, should be 128

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OUTREACH, EDUCATION, AND CAPACITY BUILDING considered to highlight the fledgling program. Private-sector participation should be sought. A dedicated exploration flagship, with a name that becomes a house- hold term, much I i ke Jacques Cousteau's Calypso, permanently outfitted for education and outreach activities would greatly facilitate achievement of this goal. Near-real-time communications between research vessels and students, educators, and the general public could be accomplished through satel I ite I i nks and I nternet broadcasts (Box 7.1 ). Informing government officials about program plans and accomplish- ments is critical to any large, federally funded program, and it will be important for all countries involved. This will require additional activities beyond those designed to reach the general public. Those activities will differ between countries, but might include inviting government officials and policy makers to visit national centers of exploration and seeking their participation on short portions of cruises, producing fact sheets on recent discoveries and their implications for the research community and society, and inviting decision makers to observe and participate in ocean explora- tion educational and outreach activities in their own regions. The proposed focus on the Arctic should be of particular interest to resource managers and policy makers concerned about global climate change. The terrestrial environments in the far north are already showing signs of distress, and latitudinal shifts in ecosystems amplify the more subtle signs discerned in more temperate locations. There is every reason to believe that the marine environment is affected similarly. The drivers for change are not just global warming, but pollution, disease, and human predation in as-yet-unknown proportions. Outreach efforts connected to Arctic exploration would help inform worldwide policy on greenhouse gas emissions, fishing quotas, natural resource extraction, and clean water standards. Finding: The way an ocean exploration program is organized both nationally and internationally can make a difference in the effective- ness of public outreach and education efforts. To be successful, educators must learn the science necessary to effectively use the curricula and scientists must understand teachers' needs. Those collaborations can- not be an afterthought; they must be fully integrated throughout the process of ocean exploration. By fostering collaborations among scientists and educators, an exploration program can ensure that edu- cators are an integral part of the planning and conduct of the explora- tion activity, whether at sea or on land. 129

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130 EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS Advances in telecommunications technology, including commercially available Earth- orbiting satellites, inexpensive stabilized antennas, high-bandwidth fiber-optic vehicle systems, high-definition video technology, and Internet2, allow real-time access to remote locations around the world and create a cost-efficient means for sharing expensive resources. Piggy-backing on a research expedition taking place in the Black Sea and the eastern Medi- terranean Sea in July and August 2003, the Sea Research Foundation's Institute for Exploration, in collaboration with the Electronic Data Systems Corporation and the University of Rhode Island, plans to create live video and data streams and produced programming from the University- National Oceanographic Laboratory System R/V Knorrto the University of Rhode Island and the Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration so that scientists, students, and the general public can participate in a deep-water archaeological and geological field research program (Figure 7.11. The Institute for Exploration plans to develop a satellite telecommunications system it believes will revolutionize the way scientists, students, and the public participate in field research and exploration. The system will be portable and available for use on cruises beginning in 2004. FIGURE 7.1 Telecommunications system aboard the R/\/Knorr (used with permission from the Institute for Exploration). Data from a remotely operated vehicle will be displayed within the shipboard telecommuni- cation and control center and transmitted back to the University of Rhode Island. A replica of the R/\/ Knorr's control center will allow scientists to participate in the expedition from the University of Rhode Island on a 24-hour basis. The Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration will develop a telecommuni- cation production facility connected to the University of Rhode Island via Internet2. In the facility, produc- tion staff will adapt the University of Rhode Island and R/\/ Knorr activities into an educational outreach program for distribution to a network of educational organizations that will participate via the public Internet and Internet2. National Geographic Television also will provide live broadcasts of research activities. Recommendation: Strong education and outreach programs with global applications should be incorporated into any exploration program to bring new discoveries to the public, enfranchise the global community in ocean exploration, and develop and foster collaborations among scientists and educators in ocean exploration. INFORMAL EDUCATION Aquariums and other informal education centers are invaluable to ocean education because they attract a large number and variety of people. Many also offer hands-on activities that allow patrons to experience oceans and

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OUTREACH, EDUCATION, AND CAPACITY BUILDING 131 ffl~" ...~... ~\ , Center N; ~ 1~ ~ oceanic ecosystems. Informal education centers often can bring ocean exploration to the general public in real time on a daily basis with docents and interpreters explaining the science in engaging ways. Such centers increase public support for marine science, and they expose diverse groups of young people to science as a potential career. FORMAL EDUCATION Ocean-related curriculum materials can improve ocean literacy, increase future generations' stewardship of the oceans, and encourage more students from diverse cultural backgrounds to pursue ocean-related careers. In par-

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132 EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS ticular, the multidisciplinary nature of ocean exploration offers captivating natural examples that can be used to teach basic science physics, chemis- try, biology, mathematics, and geology in ways that show science is both engaging and relevant to our lives. Unique and dynamic tools and pro- grams should be developed to capitalize on the excitement of exploration (Box 7.21. Data and observations from cruises or from seafloor observato- ries can be used as the foundations for instructional materials and hands-on activities that teach basic scientific concepts while increasing an under- standing of the oceans. Of course, all curriculum development must be done to ensure alignment of materials with academic standards. Use of ocean-exploration-based materials in national and international classrooms as part of standard curricula will require workshops or study groups to focus on how educators can learn the science necessary to use new curricula effectively, how teachers should conduct the activities, and how the new material can be incorporated into classrooms. A teacher-in- residence program within each nation's exploration program would be par- ticularly effective in the preparation and production of the materials for such workshops and study groups. Participants could then extend their professional development to others in their regions, enabling the use of new exploration educational materials. As the program continues educator net- works could offer professional development and information dissemination. The Bridge program is one example of a successful development effort (Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 20031. An ocean exploration program should incorporate unique, dynamic outreach programs that capture public attention and provide information about the importance of the oceans. Programs for journalists and science writers could take the form of journalist-in-residence pro- grams within each nation's ocean exploration program or short, intensive, international work- shops to focus attention on specific expeditions or discoveries. Informal education centers throughout the world could sponsor "ocean exploration ambassador" programs to bring the latest in ocean exploration discoveries to the public. A core group of ambassadors would be trained within individual nation's exploration programs, either at home or abroad, to work with other educators and the news media within their own regions and countries to disseminate information on ocean exploration. An Ocean Explorer Corps could be established for students in each nation's ocean exploration program. The corps would provide a means of communica- tion, participation, and regular contact with explorers and other people who work in the field.

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OUTREACH, EDUCATION, AND CAPACITY BUILDING Partnership development must be the responsibility of each nation par- ticipating in the exploration program, and it could be accomplished through professional organizations (examples in the United States include the National Science Teachers Association, the National Marine Educators Association, and the American Geophysical Union) or through other model programs, such as the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence created through the National Science Foundation, and the Bridge program (Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 2003) of the National Oceanographic Partnership Pro- gram. Professional development opportunities that immerse teachers in the world of scientific investigation can support the development of inquiry- based, standards-based educational materials and products. Educators and students, where appropriate, and science writers, artists, journalists, and others could participate in expeditions or shore-based activities, and post- project lesson plans should be developed by scientists and educators from the data collected. TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDING "Capacity building" occurs when the potential for further learning and skills development is increased by a multiplier effect. For example, one person trained in ocean exploration increases capacity by training others. Capacity also can be built through institutional development and restructur- ing, and it must be supported by human, technical, and financial resources. Capacity building should be an important component of an international exploration program, and many tools can be used: independent, informal learning; more formal training ~overnment-soonsored research (with the legislative support needed to create the necessary institutions). Individual capacity building should involve ways to inform citizens about the impor- tance of the oceans in their daily lives and to promote careers in science, technology, exploration, and allied fields. Agency capacity building to undertake ocean exploration and to manage and analyze data can occur through appropriate technology transfer and training. National capacity can be built to establish ocean exploration programs that achieve national research priorities and to promote one nation's ful I participation in inter- national exploration efforts. O. O , Building capacity involves outreach, education, and training. Whether the target of such efforts is one student or the staff of an agency or ministry, a variety of educational tools, such as standard curricula, apprenticeships, exchange programs, and other initiatives described in Box 7.2, can be used. Education spawns capacity building when those who have been trained 133

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134 EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS promote ocean exploration in their own agencies, institutions, or countries. Principal investigators for projects from the United States could team with foreign investigators to build mutual capacity. Training of scientists in ocean exploration techniques should target existing gaps in local capacity, especially those gaps that become impediments to reaching stated national, regional, or international goals and priorities. Financial and technical support are important too, but an international exploration program can do much to build capacity even without huge outlays of money. One way is to leverage funds by raising the profile of exploration efforts in the eyes of the philanthropic community, by providing linkages to a network of donors, and by offering to match funds as necessary. Another way to strengthen institutional capacity through an international exploration program is for the institution to act as a model of how to plan and coordinate exploration efforts, either nationally or regionally. As the international exploration program grows, it will serve as an important cata- lyst for building needed capacity in other nations. The proposed theme area of marine biodiversity has great potential to contribute to capacity building: the loss of biodiversity before a baseline can even be quantified is of concern for developed and developing nations alike. And some studies in that area will require only low-technology tools (fishing boats with nets, simple towed camera systems, divers with cameras) as well as sophisticated submersibles. There are excellent examples of terrestrial research programs that preserve critical habitat and protect valu- able or endangered species by educating the local populace on the long- term economic gains to be derived from healthy and diverse ecosystems. There is every reason to believe that similar models can be replicated in the marine environments. Long-term support for an ocean exploration effort wi l l only be possible if government officials are kept fully informed of program plans and accom- plishments. In addition, mechanisms for building capacity to multiply the program's effect and to develop and conduct international ocean explora- tion will be integral to national and international ocean exploration pro- grams. It will be important to promote global recognition of the ocean exploration program and to build the ocean exploration capacity of each country's citizens and government. Finding: In a large scale, international ocean exploration program capacity building can serve to enlist additional countries in the efforts, increase the resources (e.g., trained personnel) available for future work, and aid partner nations in good stewardship of our shared oceans.

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OUTREACH, EDUCATION, AND CAPACITY BUILDING Recommendation: National exploration programs should strengthen participation in international exploration through exchange programs for scientists and educators from different countries and through train- ing programs for educators who are preparing to set up exploration- based programs in their own countries. All materials and resources developed or collected through the ocean exploration program should be collected in a repository to document the history of collaborations among scientists and educators involved in ocean exploration. 135