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EXPLORATION O F T H E S E A S VOYAGE INTO THE UNKNOWN Committee on Exploration of the Seas Ocean Stuclies Boa rcl Division on Earth and Life Stuclies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D C www.nap.eclu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 56-DKNA-1-95107 and 56-DGNA- 1-00001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This report is funded in part by a contract from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the authorks) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08927-1 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50938-6 (PDF) Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2003113727 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stienre, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of ~ . sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS JOHN ORCUTT (Chair), Scripps I nstitution of Oceanography, La Jol la, California SHIRLEY A. POMPONI (Vice-Chair), Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida TUNDI AGARDY, Sound Seas, Bethesda, Maryland GEORGE F. BASS, Texas A&M University, College Station EARL H. DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas TERRY GARCIA, National Geograph ic Society, Wash i ngton, DC BRUCE OILMAN, Sonsub Inc. (ret.), Houston, Texas SUSAN HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts PAULA KEENER-CHAVIS, College of Charleston, South Carolina (resigned March 2002) ISAO KOIKE, University of Tokyo, Japan RICHARD LUTZ, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey MARCIA MCNUTT, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California JOHN NORTON MOORE, University of Virginia School of Law, Charlottesvi I le WALTER PITMAN 111, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York JORN THIEDE, Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany VICTOR M. VICENTE-VIDAL LORANDI, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Morelos, Mexico Staff JENNIFER MERRILL, Senior Program Officer JODI BACHIM, Sen for Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant v

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD NANCY RABALAIS (Chair), Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LARRY B. CROWDER, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina RICHARD B. DERISO, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California ROBERT B. DITTON, Texas A&M University, College Station EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCK, Texas A&M University, College Station PAUL G. GAFFNEY, 11, National Defense University, Washington, DC WAYNE R. GEYER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts STANLEY HART, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Ml RIAM KASTNER, Scripps I nstitution of Oceanography, La Jol la, California RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological Survey, Hartford WILLIAM F. MARCUSON, 111, U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (ret.), Vicksburg, Mississippi JULIAN MCCREARY, JR., University of Hawaii, Honolulu JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbus, South Carolina SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett SHIRLEY A. POMPONI, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida FRED N. SPIESS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California JON G. SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director ROBERT HAMILTON, Acting Director JENNIFER MERRILL, Senior Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate Vl

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ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate NANCY CAPUTO, Sen for Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant BYRON MASON, Project Assistant TERESIA Wl LMORE, Project Assistant v''

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Preface The ocean is Earth's least explored frontier. A well-planned, inter- national program of ocean exploration that exploits new technology, takes advantage of recent international agreements, and establishes new partner- ships could lead to untold discoveries about the ocean, its living and non- living resources, and the many species that inhabit it. Our oceans influence global climate, and they contain unknown quantities of biological, chemi- cal, and mineral resources. There is a growing recognition that we have much more to learn about the secrets our oceans hold. In December 2000, the U.S. Congress instructed the U.S. National Academies to assess the feasibility and value of implementing a major, coordinated, international program of ocean exploration and discovery. A Committee on Exploration of the Seas was constituted, with members from the academic, legal, commercial, and nonprofit sectors who were experts in Earth science, biology, engineering, underwater archaeology, and national and international law and policy. The committee convened an international workshop and a series of working meetings to develop the report's findings. Funding for a U.S. program in ocean exploration began in fiscal year 2000, but most of its work has been done in U.S. territorial waters. This report seeks to identify strategies for and benefits of an international effort. It is clear to the members of the committee that the success of any such program will require full international participation from coordinating pro- gram administration and setting priorities for exploration, to planning and implementing expeditions, to informing the public of discoveries. But, as the committee's charge states, it is necessary first to detail the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in current efforts, including those in the United States. We propose in this report an alternative framework for improving and expanding national and international ocean exploration programs. A workshop in May 2002 was convened to make a first approximation of interest in the idea of establishing a global ocean exploration program. IX

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x PREFACE ized for leadership, participation, and develop Countries recognized for leadership, participation, and developing programs were invited to send participants to discuss program ideas. The meetings focused on existing exploration programs, areas of exploration for which international participation would be especially beneficial, existing and anticipated technology, and policy or legal arrangements that a new explora- tion program might require. The committee has consolidated the presenta- tions and included a summary in Appendix D to this report. The committee is grateful to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization for hosting the workshop. The Scientific Committee on Oceanographic Research was a great help in coordinating the meeting and sponsoring the participation of members from developing nations. John Orcutt, Committee Chair Sh i rley A. Pompon i, Committee Vice-Chair

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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meetings: Joe Baker, Patricio Bernal, Steven Bohlen, Bryndis Brandsdottir, Harry Breidahl, Melbourne Briscoe, Mario Caceres, Tommy Dickey, Rene Drucker-Colin, Sylvia Earle, Paul Egerton, John Field, Christopher Fox, Montserrat Gorina- Ysern, J. Frederick Grassle, Jeremy Green, James Greenwood, John Haines, Stephen Hammond, Su Jilan, Robert Knox, Suzanne Lacasse, Margaret Leinen, Eric Lindstrom, Larry Mayer, Craig McLean, Michael Meredith, Jean- Francois Minster, Barbara Moore, Alain Morash, Rob Murdoch, Nil Odunton, Annelies Pierrot-Bults, Fangli Qiao, Muthukamatchi Ravindran, Shubha Sathyendranath, Sergey Shapovalov, Sunil Murlidhar Shastri, Victor Smetacek, Kiyoshi Suyehiro, Tamaki Ura, Edward Urban, Jr., and James Yoder. These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed. Edward Urban, Jr., Elizabeth Gross, and Maria Hood were a great assis- tance to the committee and staff in planning the International Global Ocean Exploration Workshop. The committee is also grateful to Margot Bohan and Douglas White, who provided important material for this report, Alfred Duba, who helped make our New York meeting a successful one, and Kate Kelly, who improved the report with her thorough edit. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Com- mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. Xl

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. . xll ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following people for their participation in the review of this report: VERA ALEXANDER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks D. JAMES BAKER, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania KENNETH BRINK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ROBERT A. DUCK, Texas A&M University, College Station DANIEL FORNARI, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ROBERT FROSCH, Cambridge, Massachusetts ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massach usetts SCOTT OLSON, Phoenix International, Landover, Maryland KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut JAMES G. WENZEL, Marine Development Associates, Inc., Saratoga, California CARL WUNSCH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MARSH YOUNGBLUTH, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald Walsh, Inter- national Maritime, Inc., and Louis J. Lanzerotti, Lucent Technologies. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out i n accordance with i Institutional procedures and that al I review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction History of Ocean Exploration, 1 8 Lessons from Earlier Oceanographic Programs, 24 Expectations for a Global Ocean Exploration Program, 24 Organization of the Report, 25 Justification for a New Ocean Exploration Program Interdisciplinary Exploration Is Needed, 31 Access to New Regions Is Needed, 32 Unique Applications of New Capabilities, 37 A New Program of Ocean Exploration Is Necessary, 39 Promising Areas for Ocean Exploration Marine Biodiversity, 43 Arctic Ocean, 52 Southern Ocean and Antarctic Ice Shelves, 59 Exploring the Ocean Through Time, 60 Marine Archaeology, 60 Summary, 62 International Organization and Management of an Ocean Exploration Program International Organizational Structures, 64 Invitation to Ocean Exploration Within the Annual United Nations General Assembly Ocean Resolution, 74 Voluntary Information Sharing, 75 Considerations for I International Programs, 76 . . . x''' 1 6 26 ~2 63

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xlv CONTENTS 5 Domestic Organization and Management of an Ocean Exploration Program Placement of Ocean Exploration With i n the Federal Government, 81 Management of an Ocean Exploration Program, 88 Suggestions for the Operation of an Exploration Office, 92 International Global Ocean Exploration Committee Within the U.S. Ocean Exploration Program, 95 6 Ocean Research Technologies Ocean Technology, 99 Data Management, 1 21 Postcruise Sample and Data Analys iis, 127 Outreach, Education, and Capacity Building Informal Education, 130 Formal Education, 131 Training and Capacity Building, 133 8 Supporti ng an Ocean Exploration Program Moving Beyond the Existing Program, 136 Existing U.S. Assets: Mechanisms to Increase Availabi Iity, 1 3 7 Cost of Operations, 1 3 8 Initial Capitalization, 143 References Appendixes 79 97 128 136 148 A Committee and Staff Biographies B Acronyms C International Global Ocean Exploration Workshop: Agenda and Participants D Report on the International Global Ocean Exploration Workshop E International Ship Listing 205 F I International Autonomous U nderwater Veh icle Listi ng 2 09 157 1 62 1 65 1 73