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AD\~NCING THE FEDERAL RESEARCH AGENDA ON ~A~8 - - ~. AGAINST WOMEN Steering Committee for the Workshop on Issues in Research on Violence Against Women Candace Kruttschnitt, Brenda L. McLaughlin, and Carol V. Petrie, editors Committee on Law and Justice Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Academy of Sciences and Grant No. 2000-IJ-CX- 0014 from the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publica- tion are those of the authorts) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Advancing the federal research agenda on violence against women / Steering Committee for the Workshop on Issues in Research on Violence Against Women; Candace Kruttschnitt, Brenda L. McLaughlin, and Carol V. Petrie, editors; Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council of the National Academies. p. cm. Based on a workshop convened by the National Research Council in January 2002. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-09109-8 (pbk.) ISBN 0-309-52838-0 (pdf) 1. Women Crimes against United States Congresses. 2. Women Crimes against- Research United States Congresses. 3. Women Violence against United States- Congresses. 4. Women Violence against Research United States Congresses. I. Kruttschnitt, Candace. II. McLaughlin, Brenda L. III. Petrie, Carol. IV. National Research Council (U.S.~. Steering Committee for the Workshop on Issues in Research on Violence Against Women. V. National Research Council (U.S.~. Committee on Law and Justice. HV6250.4.W65A38 2004 362.88'082'0973 dc22 2003026717 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2004~. Advancing the Federal Research Agenda on Violence Against Women. Steering Committee for the Workshop on Issues in Research on Violence Against Women, Candace Kruttschnitt, Brenda L. McLaughlin, and Carol V. Petrie, editors. Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Edu- cation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating soci- ety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedi- cated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal gov- ernment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing ser- vices to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON ISSUES IN RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT (Chair), Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota rEFFREY A. PAGAN, School of Public Health and School of Law, Columbia University MINDY THOMPSON FULLILOVE, School of Public Health, Columbia University DANIEL S. NAGIN, H.r. Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University IV

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COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE 2002-2003 CHARLES WELLFORD (Chair), Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park MARK H. MOORE (Vice-chair), Hauser Center for Non-Profit Institutions and John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID H. BAYLEY, School of Criminal Justice, University of Albany, SUNY ALFRED BLUMSTEIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University RICHARD BONNIE, Institute of Law, Psychiatry, and Public Policy, University of Virginia Law School JEANETTE COVINGTON, Department of Sociology, Rutgers University MARTHA CRENSHAW, Department of Political Science, Wesleyan University STEVEN DURLAUF, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison rEFFREY PAGAN, School of Law & School of Public Health, Columbia University rOHN FERErOHN, Hoover Institution, Stanford University DARNELL HAWKINS, Department of Sociology, University of Illinois, Chicago PHILLIP HEYMANN, Harvard Law School, Harvard University ROBERT L. rOHNSON, Pediatric and Clinical Psychiatry, and Director of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, New Jersey Medical School CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota rOHN H. LAUB, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park MARK LIPSEY, Center for Crime and Justice Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University DANIEL D. NAGIN, H.r. Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University RICHARD ROSENFELD, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis CHRISTY VISHER, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute CATHY SPATZ WIDOM, Department of Psychiatry, New Jersey Medical School v

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Carol Petrie, Study Director Brenda McLaughlin, Research Associate Ralph Patterson, Senior Project Assistant Al

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Preface Knowledge from research on the violent victimization of women has advanced significantly during the past decade. As a result of improved survey research in the fields of criminal justice and pub- lic health, we now have a better grasp of the scope and nature of violence against women, especially intimate-partner violence and sexual assault. Much remains to be done, however, especially to increase our knowledge of the causes and consequences of serious assaults, including sexual as- saults, and homicides against women. The nation now spends hundreds of millions of dollars to improve the safety of women, especially at home, and yet more than half of all female homicide victims are killed by an intimate partner, other family member, or acquaintance. Although, as with homicide in general, the rates of domestic homicide for women have de- creased, they have declined at a slower rate than those for men. In addi- tion, the violent victimization of women by strangers and in other settings and circumstances has been largely neglected in the research literature. This report expands on the work of an earlier National Research Council (NRC) panel whose report, Understanding Violence Against Women, was published in 1996. While some of the research recommended in that report has been funded and carried out, important gaps remain. For ex- ample, prevalence and incidence data are still inadequate to measure trends or to reveal whether the interventions being designed are in fact working to improve the overall safety of women in society. It is hoped that the recommendations in the present report will begin to improve this situation. This report is based on the presentations and deliberations of a work- . . V11

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vIll PREFACE shop convened by the NRC in January 2002 to develop a detailed research agenda on violence against women. The chapters in the report draw on the eight papers commissioned for the workshop, on the comments made by a panel of distinguished commentators, and on the discussion by work- shop participants. Many people made generous contributions to the workshop's success. We thank the authors of the papers presented: Laura Dugan and Robert Apel, University of Maryland; Jacquelyn Campbell and Jennifer Manganello, Johns Hopkins University; Sandra Martin and Beth Moracco, University of North Carolina; fuanjo Medina, University of Manchester; Deanna Wilkinson and Susan Hamerschlag, Temple Univer- sity; Kirk Williams and Elizabeth Conniff, University of California, River- side; Christopher Maxwell and Lori Post, Michigan State University; Amy Holtzworth-Munroe and Jeffrey Meehan, Indiana University, Bloomington; and Daniel Saunders and Richard Hamill, University of Michigan. We also thank the scholars who prepared comments on each of the papers: Ann Coker, University of South Carolina; Colin Loftin, Uni- versity at Albany; Ross MacMillan, University of Minnesota; Michael Benson, University of Cincinnati; Robert F. Meter, University of Nebraska; Greg Pogarsky, University at Albany; Alissa Worden, University at A1- bany; John Firman, International Association of Chiefs of Police; Julie Homey, University at Albany; and Marty Friday, Women's Center and Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh. We thank as well the scholars who presented on topics not covered by the papers: David Ford, Indiana University; Adele Harrell, Urban Institute; Patricia Munhall, University of South Carolina; Beth Richie, University of Illinois, Chicago; Carolyn Rebecca Block, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority; Myrna Dawson, University of Western Ontario; and Bill McCarthy, University of Califor- nia, Davis. We also thank Kirsten Sampson Snyder, Reports Officer, Rona Briere, editor, and Yvonne Wise for managing the production process. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integ- rity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individu- als for their review of this report: Rosemary Gartner, Centre of Criminol- ogy, University of Toronto; Karen Heimer, Department of Sociology, University of Iowa; Julie Homey, School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, State University of New York; Catherine Stayton, Department of

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PREFACE Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn College, City University of New York; and Ralph Brecken Taylor, Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report's conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Rich- ard B. Rosenfeld, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Uni- versity of Missouri-St. Louis. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all re- view comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Candace Kruttschnitt Chair

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Contents EXECUTIVE SO 1 INTRODUCTION 2 NATURE AND SCOFF OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL ASKS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 4 FREVE~ION AND DETERRENCE 1 9 35 59 5 IDENTIFYING AND TREATING OFFENDERS 83 TUE FOURS OF RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: FINAL TUOUCUTS REFERENCES AFFENDICES BIOCRAFUICAL SKETCHES B WORKSUOF ACENDA C COMMISSIONED FAFERS a, a, 96 101 121 124 131

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