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APPENDIX A Biographical Sketches Candace Kruttschnitt (Chair) is a professor in the Department of Sociol- ogy at the University of Minnesota. She has published widely on the sub- ject of female offenders, including both reviews of research pertaining to gender differences in etiology and primary analyses of criminal court sanctions. Most recently, she has been finishing a study, with Professor Rosemary Gartner, of women's responses to imprisonment. Her current research interests focus on the law, criminology and deviance, and gen- der and life courses. She has published on topics that include gender and violence and the interaction between formal and informal social control. She has a B.A. in criminology from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in sociology, both from Yale University. Jeffrey A. Fagan is a professor of law and public health at Columbia Uni- versity. For over two decades, his research and scholarship have focused on crime, law, and social policy. His current research examines error rates in capital punishment, racial profiling, and the jurisprudence of adoles- cent crime; community courts and therapeutic jurisprudence; and percep- tions of the legitimacy of the criminal law. His past research has included studies of street gangs, drug selling, domestic violence, and the spatial analysis of adolescent violence. He is a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice, the MacArthur Foundation's Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice, the Incarceration Working Group of the Russell Sage Foundation, and the National Consortium on Violence Research. From 1994 to 1998, he served on the Violence Study Section of the National Institute of Mental Health. 121

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22 RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Mindy Thompson Fullilove is research psychiatrist at Columbia Univer- sity, with a joint appointment as associate professor of Clinical Psychiatry and Public Health. She has been involved in research on substance abuse and HIV infection, including a study examining the access of minority women to AIDS resources, and on health risk due to lifetime trauma, vio- lence, and environmental breakdown. She has completed a longitudinal study of housing resettlement in central Harlem involving the experiences of 10 families, as well as an interview study of over 100 men and women aimed at understanding their experiences of the violence epidemic in their neighborhood. Her current work includes an evaluation of the effective- ness of two interventions designed to improve environmental health, and a project aimed at delineating the process of spiritual awakening that oc- curs among participants in 12-step fellowship addiction treatment. She is a current member of the National Research Council's Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Brenda L. McLaughlin is a research associate with the Committee on Law and Justice at the National Research Council. She has previously worked on projects on juvenile crime, school violence, policing, and improving data and research for drug policy. Ms. McLaughlin received a B.A. in soci- ology and Spanish from Juniata College in 1997, and an M.A. in sociology from American University in 1999. Daniel S. Nagin is a professor of management at the H. I. Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University, and the research director of the National Consortium on Violence Research. He has written widely on deterrence, developmental trajectories and crimi- nal careers, tax compliance, and statistical methodology. He is a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice and is also a coeditor of the widely cited report Deterrence and Incapacitation: Es- timating the Effect of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates (1978~. He is on the editorial board of five academic journals and a fellow of the American Society of Criminology. He has a B.S. in administrative and managerial sciences, an M.S. in industrial administration, and a Ph.D. in urban and public affairs from Carnegie Mellon University. Carol V. Petrie, study director, serves as staff director of Committee on law and Justice, National Research Council (NRC), a position she has held since 1997. Prior to her work at the NRC, she was the director of Planning and Management at the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), responsible for policy development and administration. In 1994, she served as the Acting Director of NIT during the transition between the Bush and Clinton Ad-

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APPENDIX A 123 ministrations. Throughout a 30-year career she has worked in the area of criminal justice research, statistics, and public policy, serving as a project officer and in administration at NIT and at the Bureau of Justice Statistics. She has conducted research on violence, and managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior, policy on illegal drugs, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, transnational crime, and im- proving the operations of the criminal justice system.