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1 Introduction ' n lanuary 2002, a committee of the National Research Council (NRC) convened a workshop to formulate a research agenda for addressing ~ the continuing problem of violence against women. The findings and recommendations emerging from the workshop are presented in this report. CONTEXT Violence against women is a long-standing social problem in the United States and throughout the world. A recent survey on the preva- lence and incidence of violence against women in the United States re- vealed that one in every six women has experienced an attempted or com- pleted rape as a child and/or adult. Each year more than 300,000 women are forcibly raped, and more than 4 million suffer an aggravated or simple assault (Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000~. The Bureau of Justice Statistics re- ports that between 1976 and 1999, murders of women accounted for 24 percent of total homicides in the United States. Approximately one-third of these victims were killed by a spouse, boyfriend, or other family mem- ber. Moreover, while homicides declined during the 1990s for both men and women, the decline in intimate-partner homicides was greater for male than for female victims (Fox and Zawitz, 2002~. The importance of the problem of violence against women was ac- knowledged by Congress with the passage of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. The act included a mandate that the National Insti- tute of Justice (NIT) task the NRC with developing a research agenda to 9

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10 RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN increase understanding and control of violence against women. In 1996, the NRC published the results of that study in Understanding Violence Against Women. The NRC report draws attention to the importance of building knowledge about violence against women and its prevention to support and inform national (and international) efforts to create a safer society for women and girls. It identifies a framework for conducting re- search in three areas: improving research methods, building knowledge about violence against women, and preventing violence against women. It also calls for developing a new federal infrastructure for conducting research on this important topic. In 1998, Congress provided new funds to NIT for the implementation of some of these research recommenda- tions. In addition to creating a program of studies under the NRC frame- work, NIT, in partnership with the Office of Justice Programs' (olP) Vio- lence Against Women Office, initiated a significant program for evaluating criminal justice responses to violence against women. Box 1-1 summa- rizes activities and research conducted by olP and NIT under the Violence Against Women Act; Table 1-1, which appears at the end of the chapter,

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INTRODUCTION 11 presents NIT-funded research projects in this area up to the end of 2000, organized under each of the major research recommendations of the NRC report (Note: the table does not include research funded by other govern- ment agencies in response to the recommendations in Understanding Vio- lence Against Women). One emphasis of the framework set forth in Understanding Violence Against Women is the need to improve research methods. The report calls for the use of clearly defined terms, particularly when delineating ex- pected outcomes in evaluation studies, and for the development and vali- dation of operational definitions and tools for measuring violence against women. NIT has funded a handful of studies that evaluate measurement instruments (see Table 1-1), and also sponsored a workshop on measure- ment on November 20, 2000. To date, however, studies have not specifi- cally addressed problems of definition as a main goal. The report also recommends that national and community-level sur- veys include information on behavior, injuries, and other consequences of violence in measurements of the incidence and prevalence of violence

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2 RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN against women. It calls for more research on the social, cultural, and indi- vidual context and experience of violence in women's lives and on the results of this violence, including intergenerational consequences and costs to society. In addition, the report stresses the need for longitudinal studies tracing the developmental trajectory of violence against women and other violent behaviors. In response to these recommendations, NIT has funded many studies to examine the context of violence against women, particularly studies examining economic distress, race/ethnicity, and alcohol and drug abuse. No new longitudinal studies on this topic have been undertaken in the United States, however. The Dunedin Health and Development study (Moffitt et al., 2001) in New Zealand is an example of a population-based longitudinal study that has provided useful information about violence against women. Moreover, although support has been provided for se- lected studies on the consequences of violence against women, the need remains to measure the causes and consequences of violence against women in national and community surveys. To build knowledge about preventing violence against women, the NRC report recommends that evaluation studies of prevention programs describe current services for victims and measure both short- and long- term effects of those services. It also recommends randomized, controlled outcome studies of legal and social service interventions with offenders, studies on the service-seeking behavior of victims, and studies on the use of discretion by officials in the criminal and civil justice systems. Although NIT has funded many evaluation studies, evaluations of primary preven- tion programs particularly educational programs using experimental methods are still needed to measure long-term effects, as well as effects on the rate of new cases of violence against women. Similarly, few out- come studies of offender treatment use rigorous designs or measure long- term effects. There is also limited research on the effects of legal reforms on rates of reporting, arrests, and conviction, and little or no research on more recent legislative changes, such as sex offender notification laws, sexually violent predator laws, and laws criminalizing the use of "date rape drugs." NIT has funded a few studies addressing service-seeking be- havior, with a focus on minority women; police officer perceptions of do- mestic violence; and judicial and prosecutorial decisions regarding do- mestic and sexual violence cases (see Table 1-1~. WORKSHOP ON ISSUES IN RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Given the continuing nature of the problem of violence against women and the persisting gaps in research on the problem and its control,

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INTRODUCTION 13 Congress in 2000 asked the NRC to develop a detailed research agenda based on the recommendations of Understanding Violence Against Women. To address this new mandate, the NRC appointed a steering committee of four distinguished scholars and issued the following charge: A sub-committee of the Committee on Law and Justice will organize a workshop, bringing together researchers from various disciplines, in- cluding psychology, sociology, criminology, public health, statistics, epi- demiology, and law, and policy officials from the Department of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Among the social scientists will be those who have studied the victimization and perpetra- tion of violence against women. This workshop will build upon the groundwork laid by the NRC Panel on Research on Violence Against Women, determining what progress has been made since the panel's re- port and what work still needs to be done, and recommending a new research agenda based on those determinations. The presentations and discussions at the workshop will focus on the following issues: Trends and patterns of victimization Violence across the life course Spatial distributions of violence against women Situational determinants of violence against women Testing deterrence models Assessment and development of primary prevention Motivations of offenders, and implications for treatment Background papers will be commissioned and will be circulated be- fore the workshop, where short presentations will lead to detailed dis- cussions of the major areas to be explored. After the workshop, the sub- committee will meet to discuss the outcomes and reach consensus on recommendations. A summary of the meeting and the subcommittee's recommendations of steps to fill in research gaps will be prepared and submitted to the sponsor and other participants and interested parties. In January 2002, with funds from NIT, the steering committee, under the auspices of the NRC's Committee on Law and Justice, convened the Workshop on Issues in Research on Violence Against Women. The pur- pose of the workshop was to review the knowledge base that has emerged in this area since the publication of Understanding Violence Against Women focusing particularly, but not exclusively, on studies completed between 1995 and 2000 and identify further research needs. The steering committee commissioned eight papers by prominent re- searchers, identified scholars to serve as formal commentators, and in- vited a group of distinguished researchers and practitioners to participate in the 2-day workshop. The papers summarized important domains of research on violence against women, including prevalence and incidence,

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4 RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN data sources, prevention and deterrence, and treatment for offenders (see Appendix C for a list of the commissioned papers). Following presenta- tion of the papers, workshop participants discussed research gaps and suggested new efforts to meet research needs, especially to inform pre- vention strategies and assess intervention efforts. In general, this report is a synthesis of the presentations and the expertise of participants. The com- mittee notes that a number of studies published between 1995 and 2000 were not covered by workshop papers or discussion. References for some of these studies are provided in an addendum to the reference list for the reader's information. KEY THEMES Before proceeding, we wish to emphasize an important theme that emerged from the committee's deliberations on the workshop papers and discussion. Because so little research on violence against women was con- ducted in the past, most such research has been conducted in isolation from the larger body of work on violence in general (including research such as that on violence by men, on violence by adolescents, and on crimi- nal careers). This intellectual separation of research on violence against women also stems from the premise that distinctive features of the social and political context of such violence, particularly the context of intimate relationships, set it apart from other forms of violence. That is, women's greater exposure and vulnerability to attacks by intimates and greater probability of being injured in such attacks make violence against women distinctive. This distinction is an important one: female murder victims are eight times more likely to be killed by an intimate than are male mur- der victims, and women are the primary victims of stalking (Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000; Rennison, 2003~. The steering committee is nevertheless troubled by the almost total separation that has characterized this field. While there is dissimilarity in the contexts and outcomes of victimization for women and men, the com- mittee questions whether behavioral patterns or causes of violent behav- ior are different enough to warrant this degree of separation. At this point in its development, a greater degree of integration of research on violence against and by women with the larger literature on crime and violence would enrich the former research intellectually and extend the lessons that can be learned about violence against women. Findings from research on violence against women could in turn be used to inform research on other types of violence. For example, in their analysis focusing on family homicide, Petrie and Garner (1990) identify characteristics that may help predict homicide and possibly other kinds of violence. This conclusion is based on the observation that a substantial propor-

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INTRODUCTION 15 lion of that violence occurs outside of intimate relationships. For example, the National Crime Victimization Survey found that approximately 38 percent of nonfatal violent crimes against women in 1994 were committed by a stranger (Craven, 1997~. In 2000, the same survey again found that about one-third of all female victims of violent crime and one-third of rape and sexual assault victims described the offender as a stranger (Rennison, 2001~. At this point, we have no evidence that a separate theory is needed to explain violence by intimates and no reason to expect that the closeness (or distance) of the relationship between victim and offender sets the con- ditions for theoretical predictions of violent offending. For example, Holtzworth-Munroe and Meehan (2002) describe a batterer typology (see Chapter 5) that uses the broader literature on delinquency and violent behavior to show that batterers can be classified according to generality of violence (i.e., marital only or extrafamilial). This typology includes a sub- type of generally violent/antisocial batterers whose marital violence is conceptualized as part of their general use of aggression and engagement in antisocial behavior. Moreover, a growing body of empirical evidence demonstrates that perpetrators of violence against women commonly have histories of violence and conduct problems outside of intimate rela- tionships (Giordano et al., 1999; Capaldi and Clark, 1998; Farrington, 1994~. On the basis of this evidence, Moffitt et al. (2001:175) conclude: . . . childhood conduct problems, even when measured in the first decade of life, foretell relationship violence equally well in the adult lives of both males and females. The finding that young people who have a history of antisocial con- duct problems are likely to employ similar aggressive tactics later in their primary adult relationships suggests the hypothesis that the causes of conduct disorder may also be at the root causes of partner violence. In- terventions conceptualized as treatments for conduct problems gain even more urgency if they are re-conceptualized as primary prevention for future domestic violence. It is noteworthy that this conclusion is not limited to male perpetra- tors. Moffitt et al. (2001) argue convincingly that women perpetrate much violence in the context of intimate relationships that is not purely defen- sive, though at much lower rates of frequency and severity than men. Thus, it is important to expand both theoretical and empirical models to iFelson (2002) also suggests studying motives for violence against women within a frame- work of motivations for violence in general.

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16 RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN better understand female-perpetrated violence, the contexts in which it occurs, and its consequences for both victims and offenders. Discussion in the remaining chapters of this report, then, reflects the committee's view that, to a somewhat greater extent than is currently the case, studies of violence against women should draw upon the larger literature. The theoretical and longitudinal literatures on violent crime and aggression generally are especially pertinent in this regard for deter- mining whether new longitudinal studies focused on women's violent victimization are needed. Finally, because the majority of extant research on violence against women addresses intimate-partner violence, much of this report has a similar focus. The committee notes, however, that over two-thirds of ho- micides against women take place outside of this context, and that vio- lence against women is perpetrated by strangers and acquaintances. Therefore, the committee believes the research agenda of the federal gov- ernment on violence against women should be expanded to include these other cases. Further, the exploration of women's violent victimization during the workshop included their own violent acts. As with violent vic- timization of women, violence by women may differ from that by men in important ways, specifically with regard to its context and correlates. As more than one participant made clear at the workshop, in many cases violence by women can be understood only in the context of violence com- mitted against women. It may be useful to consider a framework whereby these different types of violence in which women play roles, as either of- fenders or victims, are connected. REPORT ORGANIZATION The remainder of this report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 reviews the means researchers have available for measuring violence against women and the knowledge thus obtained. Chapter 3 addresses the social and geographic factors that determine the social ecological risks of violence against women. Chapter 4 presents what is known about pre- vention and deterrence. Chapter 5 examines means for identifying and treating offenders. Finally, Chapter 6 prioritizes the key points and rec- ommendations made throughout the report.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 NIr-Funded Research on Violence Against Women, by Recommendations of NRC Report, 1995-2000 Principal Investigator, Project Title 17 Method Level Project Goal Recommendation 1: Researchers and practitioners should more clearly define the terms used in their work. Recommendation 2: Research funds should be made available for the development and validation of scales and other tools for the measurement of violence against women to make operational key and most used definitions. The development process should include input from subpopulations with whom the instrument will be used, for example, people of color or specific ethnic groups. Campbell, J. C., Risk Factors Analysis of for Homicide in Violent official Intimate Relationships records O'Sullivan, C., Field Testing Evaluation Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Instruments: A Planning Study for an Experimental Evaluation Campbell, J. C., Intimate Evaluation: Risk Violence Assessment interviews, Instruments: A Prospective analysis of Validation Field Experiment criminal records Cook, S., Investigating the Roles of Context, Meaning, interview and Method in the Measurement of Central Violence Against Women Constructs Multicity Multicity Evaluate the Danger Assessment Instrument; identify risk factors preceding intimate-partner homicide. Evaluate the validity and reliability of instruments being used to assess a domestic abuse victim's level of risk, with a focus on the Mosaic-20. Evaluate the effectiveness of four extant risk assessment instruments: Mosaic-20, Danger Assessment, Domestic Violence Screening Instrument, and Kingston- Screening Instrument for Domestic Violence. Review measurement instruments and research practices in research on violence against women; determine the prevalence of violence- ag ainst-w omen constructs, and develop a new model; explore use of computer-based data collection for research on violence against women in correctional and health care settings. Continued

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18 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Recommendation 3: National and community-level representative sample survey studies using the most valid instrumentation and questioning techniques available to measure incidence and prevalence of violence against women are needed. These studies should collect data not only on behavior, but also on injuries and other consequences of violence. Studies of incidence and prevalence of perpetration of violence against women are also needed. National and community surveys of other topics, such as women's mental or physical health or social or economic well-being, should be encouraged to include questions pertaining to violence against women. Furthermore, identification and secondary analysis of existing datasets with respect to violence against women should be funded. Fisher, B., Extent and Nature of Sexual Victimization of College Women Tjaden, P., Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women in America Weiss, H., A Population- Based Comparison of Assaultive Injury Patterns Among Hospitalized Pregnant Women Compared to Women of Reproductive Age Survey National Survey National Analysis of . , . exls~mg dataset Fagan, J., and Wilt, S., Social Analysis of and Neighborhood Risks existing of Violence Towards dataset Women: Implications for Prevention Wells, W., An Analysis of Unexamined Issues in the Intimate-Partner Homicide Decline: Race, Quality of Victim Services, Offender Accountability, and System Accountability Measure the prevalence of sexual victimization. Multistate Community Analysis of . , . exls~mg dataset State Measure the prevalence and incidence of rape, physical assault, and stalking. Measure the incidence of assault among hospitalized pregnant women; develop a mechanism to measure the burden and trends of serious violence against pregnant women. Examine the spatial distribution of violence against women in New York City; estimate risk factors. Analyze rates of intimate- partner homicide by race and gender of victims and offenders; test how support services, offender accountability, and system accountability affect victim safety.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 19 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Salomon, A., Secondary Data Analysis of Analysis on the Etiology, existing Course, and Consequences longitudinal of Intimate-Partner Violence dataset Against Extremely Poor Women Community Measure rates of lifetime adult-partner violence and childhood abuse. Recommendation 4: All research on violence against women should take into account the context within which women live their lives and in which the violence occurs. This context should include the broad social and cultural context, as well as individual factors. Work should include more qualitative research, such as ethnographic research, as well as quantitative research, designed to uncover the confluence of factors such as race, socioeconomic status, age, and sexual orientation in shaping the context and experience of violence in women's lives. Benson, M., Economic Analysis of National Examine the effect of Distress, Community existing economic distress on violence Context and Intimate dataset against women. Violence Jasinski,J. L., Violence Analysis of National Examine the developmental Against Women: An existing antecedents of violence Examination of dataset against women by race/ Developmental Antecedents ethnicity. Among Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic Women Malcoe, L. H., Understanding Partner survey Violence in Native American Women Perilla, J., Domestic Abuse Among Latinos: Description and Intervention Pennell, S., Examining the Nature and Correlates of Domestic Violence Among Female Arrestees in San Diego Interview Community Interview Community Measure the prevalence of intimate-partner violence among Native American women in Plains tribes; examine risk and protective factors. Community Explore patterns of abuse within the context of Latino cultural values. Examine the incidence and prevalence of domestic violence among female arrestees and the relationship among alcohol and drugs, violent victimization, and service and treatment needs of female offenders. Continued

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24 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Coulter, M., The Survey, State Relationship Between interview, Welfare, Domestic Violence analysis of and Employment administrative data Naylor Goodwin, S., Longitudinal County Violence Against Women: cohort The Role of Welfare Reform interview Bogat, G. A., Understanding Interview, Multisite the Intergenerational longitudinal Transmission of Violence Against Women from Pregnancy Through the First Year of Life Examine the impact of violence against women on the economic self-sufficiency of women welfare recipients. Determine the impacts of domestic violence on employment, the impacts of welfare reform on women's experiences of domestic violence, and the effect of specific services on those impacts. Examine the effect of battering of mothers on their infants during pregnancy and the first year of life. Recommendation 7: Evaluations of preventive and treatment intervention efforts must clearly define the outcomes expected from the intervention. These outcome measures should derive from an explicit theory underlying each intervention. Defining outcomes requires close collaboration between researchers and service providers. Recommendation 8: Programs designed to prevent sexual and intimate-partner violence should be subject to rigorous evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Programs designed to prevent delinquency, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, gang involvement, or general violence (including conflict mediation programs) should include evaluation of risk factors for and prevention of intimate and sexual violence. In addition, studies of at-risk children and adolescents should include an examination of the relationship of risk factors, such as poverty, childhood victimization, and brain injury, to outcomes of sexual and intimate-partner violence. Heckert, A., Predicting Levels of Abuse and Reassault Among Batterer Program Participants Jouriles, E., Children of Battered Women: Reducing Risk for Abuse Analysis of existing longitudinal dataset Evaluation Community Multisite Build a prediction model to identify risk factors and outcomes of arrested batterers. Examine intervention outcomes for mothers and children in reducing risk for child maltreatment.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 25 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Linares, L., The Effects of Dyad Community Examine the effect of Community Violence on interviews, community on family Women and Children observation aggression related to maternal practices in high- crime neighborhoods. Siegel, J. A., Risk Factors Analysis of Community Examine child abuse as a risk for Violent Victimization of existing factor for adult victimization. Women: A Prospective dataset Study Betts, P., Women's Experience with Violence: A Collaborative Research Initiative for the Center for records, Research on Women and the interview Memphis Sexual Assault Resource Center Analysis of Community program and official Examine risk factors for sexual violence against women; evaluate a local sexual violence resource center. Recommendation 9: Studies that describe current services for victims of violence and evaluate their effectiveness are needed. Studies to investigate the factors associated with victims' service-seeking behavior, including delaying seeking of services or not seeking services at all, are also needed. These studies should describe and evaluate innovative or alternative approaches or settings for identifying and providing services to victims of violence against women. Resnick, H., Prevention of Post-Rape Psychopathology in Women Enos, V., An Intervention to Literature Improve Documentation of review, Domestic Violence in interview, Medical Records focus groups, evaluation Evaluation Community City Evaluate video-based preventive intervention. Develop, implement, and evaluate a training intervention to improve documentation of abuse in health care settings. Sullivan, C., Using a Evaluation, Community Evaluate strengths-based Longitudinal Dataset to longitudinal intervention for victims of Further Our Understanding violence against women. Of the Trajectory of Intimate Violence over Time Weisz, A., An Evaluation of Evaluation Family Advocacy with a Team Approach Community Evaluate victim advocate services. Continued

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26 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Nagin, D., Dugan, L., and Analysis of Rosenfeld, R., The Impact of existing Legal Advocacy on dataset Intimate-Partner Homicide Chaiken, M., Impact of VAWA: What Counts? Isaac, N., Corporate Sector Response to Domestic Violence Multisite (48 cities) Case studies Multisite Survey, interview, case study Bronson, D., Ramos, D., and Evaluation Bohmer, C., An Evaluation of Victim Advocacy in Ohio Ruch, L. O., Reporting Sexual Assault to the Police in Hawaii Dutton, M., National Evaluation of the Rural Domestic and Child Victimization Enforcement Grant Program Phase I and II Alpert, G. P., The Lexington Evaluation County Court: A Partnership and Evaluation Uekert, B., and Dupree, C., National Evaluation of Grants to Combat Violent Crimes Against Women on Campus Evaluate the impact of legal advocacy efforts on rates of intimate-partner homicide in terms of exposure-reducing potential. National State Interview State Evaluation National Community Evaluation National Assess the impact of funds provided under the Violence Against Women Act in addressing domestic violence (victim safety, offender accountability). Explore the responsiveness of the corporate sector to employees' experiences of domestic violence. Describe and evaluate victim advocacy services in terms of personal functioning and pursuit of adjudication. Examine variables influencing the reporting of sexual violence to police. Evaluate this program designed to learn about domestic violence in rural families and increase the safety of rural abused women and children. Assess the impact of domestic violence court on victim safety, and the accountability of offenders and the court system. Document the impact of Violence Against Women Office (VAWO)-funded college campus programs on violence against women.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 27 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Ames, L., Evaluating Domestic Violence Programs in Clinton County McDermott, M. J., Responding to Domestic Violence in Southern Illinois: An Evaluation Partnership Evaluation Community Evaluation Community Evaluate VAWO-funded programs to encourage arrest policies for domestic violence. Evaluate outcomes of a VAWO-funded pro-arrest project. Ryan, R., Evaluation of Evaluation- State Assess and compare the Protective Order comparative effectiveness of POET and Enforcement Team (POET) analysis Domestic Assault Response Team. McFarlane, J., Increasing Victim Safety and System Accountability with Protection Orders: Evaluating a Collaborative Intervention Between Health Care and Criminal Justice Whitcomb, D., and Fisher, B., Research on Procedures of Institutions of Higher Education to Report Sexual Assaults Burt, M., National Impact Evaluation of Victim Services Programs Funded Through the S.T.O.P. Violence Against Women Formula Program Evaluation County Survey, National content analysis of official documents Evaluation National Implement and test an advocacy case management intervention in the specialized district attorney's office that aims to inform victims about how they can obtain protection orders and to offer advice and support regarding safety, emotional well-being, and work productivity. Describe policies and procedures of institutions of higher education for responding to reports of sexual assaults. Describe the variety of S.T.O.P.-funded victim service programs, the community and state contexts in which they operate, and their effect on victim outcomes; assess the degree to which S.T.O.P. funding for victim service programs has affected program services, community context, and victim outcomes. Continued

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28 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Uekert, B., and McEwen, T., Evaluation National Evaluation of the Arrest Policies Program Under the Violence Against Women Act Luna, E., Impact Evaluation Impact of the S.T.O.P. Grant evaluation, Programs for Reducing case study Violence Against Women Pennell, S., The Nature and Scope of Violence Against Women in San Diego Uchida, C., Evaluating the DVERT program in Colorado Springs Connors, E., National Evaluation of the Domestic Violence Victims' Civil Legal Assistance (CLA) Program National National Review Community of records Process Community evaluation Evaluation National Explore local implementations of model programs; study interactions among officials to develop a model of collaboration for a systematic approach to domestic violence; assess program effectiveness; and identify innovative, unique, and promising projects. Evaluate programs funded under the S.T.O.P. Violence Against Indian Women grants to understand the cultural and legal context of reducing violence against women among Indian tribes; evaluate the impact of tribal programs to reduce violence against women; and make recommendations for . . . . mprovmg exlstmg programs and developing new programs for tribes to reduce violence against women. Describe characteristics of victims, batterers, and domestic violence incidents using data from emergency shelters and police records. Examine the intervention process of the Colorado Springs Domestic Violence Enhanced Response Team (DVERT). Describe types of problems being addressed and projects being supported; examine how CLA programs assess need and conduct outreach to clients; and examine immediate and long-term impacts on clients.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 29 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Recommendation 10: Randomized, controlled outcome studies are needed to identify the program and community features that account for the effectiveness of legal or social service interventions with various groups of offenders. Havens, C., Evaluation of Evaluation Special Session Domestic Violence: Enhanced Advocacy and Interventions Eckhardt, C., Stages and Processes of Change and Associated Treatment Outcomes in Partner Assaultive Men Evaluation Community Lyon, E., Impact Evaluation Evaluation Community of a Special Session Domestic Violence: Enhanced Advocacy and Interventions Hartley, C., The Cook Evaluation County Court Target Abuser Call (TAC): An Evaluation of a Specialized Domestic Violence Court Davis, R., The Brooklyn Domestic Violence Experiment Feder, L., A Test of the Efficacy of Court-Mandated Counseling for Domestic Violence Offenders Community Experimental Community design Experimental County design Greenspan, R., and Experimental Community Weisburd, D., The design Richmond/Police Foundation Domestic Violence Partnership Evaluate the effectiveness of specialized domestic violence court sessions in terms of victim safety and offender recidivism. Examine the effects of court- referred batterer intervention programs on subsequent attrition and recidivism. Evaluate outcomes of a program for male domestic violence offenders. Examine the effect of a specialized domestic violence court on conviction rates, victim appearance rates, etc. Determine the effect of court- mandated batterer treatment in Brooklyn in terms of reoffending and attitude change. Test the effectiveness of court-mandated counseling in reducing repeat violence. Test the effects of social workers who provide crisis intervention on the scene of domestic violence incidents, as well as follow-up services. Continued

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30 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Recommendation 11: Studies are needed that examine discretionary processes in the criminal and civil justice systems, including implementation of new laws and reforms, charging and prosecutorial decision making, jury decision making, and judicial decision making. Legal research, which supplies the theoretical basis behind legal interpretations and reforms, is also needed. Hotaling, G., and Buzawa, E., Criminal Justice Intervention in Domestic Violence: Victim Preferences Victim Satisfaction and Factors Impacting on Revictimization Belknap, J., A Longitudinal Study of Battered Women in the System: The Victims' and Decision Makers' Perceptions Rivara, F., Protection of Women: Health and Justice Outcomes Smith, B., An Evaluation of Efforts to Implement No-Drop Policies: Two Central Values in Conflict Finn, M., Evaluation of Policies, Procedures, and Programs Addressing Violence Against Women Burt, M., and Harrell, A., National Evaluation of the VAWA Grants Wolf, M. E., Protection of Women: Health and Justice Outcomes Analysis of existing dataset Community Interviews, Multisite longitudinal Follow-up Community evaluation Evaluation Multisite Evaluation Multisite Evaluation National Evaluation, Community cohort study Examine risk factors for victims and perpetrators, and preferences and dissatisfaction of victims with regard to the criminal justice system. Examine victim and prosecutor perceptions of the problem, and influences on decisions of battered women who have gone through the court system. Examine the effects of protection orders. Evaluate the effects of no-drop policies. Evaluate the effects of no-drop policies. Document grant activities and programs under the Violence Against Women Act; assess outcomes and accomplishments of grantees. Evaluate the effectiveness of protection orders.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 31 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Keilitz, S., Domestic Violence Courts: Jurisdiction, Organization, Performance Goals and Measures Survey, National interview Sviridoff, M., King's County Evaluation County Felony Domestic Court Research Partnership: Exploring Implementation and Early Impacts Giacomazzi, A., and Smithey, M., Violence Against Women in the City of E1 Paso, Texas: Developing Research- Practitioner Partnerships McEwen, T., and Miller, N., Study of the Effectiveness of State Anti-Stalking Efforts and Legislation McEwen, T., Impact Evaluation of S.T.O.P. Grants: Law Enforcement and Prosecution Buzawa, E., Understanding, Interview Preventing, and Controlling Domestic Violence Incidents Spohn, C., Prosecutors' Charging Decisions in Sexual Assault Cases Provide a comprehensive list of domestic violence courts; develop performance goals. Evaluate a county domestic violence court. Evaluation Community Survey National Evaluation Multisite Community Analysis of official records Multicity Evaluate the effect of domestic violence training on police officer perceptions of domestic violence, the amount of time police officers spend on the scene with victims of domestic violence, and the number of cases accepted for prosecution and resulting in . , . conviction. Assess the status and effect of state antistalking efforts and laws. Evaluate the impact of a cross section of activities supported under the Law Enforcement and Prosecution purpose area of the S.T.O.P. formula grants. Examine characteristics of domestic violence offenses, offenders, and victims in a proactive court setting. Examine the effect of victim, suspect, and case characteristics on prosecutors' charging decisions. Continued

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32 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Caliber Associates, Educational Development Center, National Center for State Courts, Evaluation of a Multi-Site Demonstration of Collaborations to Address Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Harrell, A., and Newmark, L., Evaluation of a Multi-Site Demonstration for Enhanced Judicial Oversight of Domestic Violence Cases Belknap, J., Factors Related to Domestic Violence Court Dispositions in Large Urban Areas Worden, A., Models of Community Coordination in Response to Partner Violence Morrill, A. C., Child Custody and Visitation When the Father Batters the Mother Evaluation Multisite Evaluation Multisite Interview, survey, analysis of official records Survey, State interview, Community Evaluation Multisite Measure the extent to which collaboration of sites under the Green Book demonstration project resulted in system change and improvements in safety, repeat abuse, and batterer accountability. Evaluate enhanced judicial oversight to determine the effect of victim services and strong judicial oversight of and graduated sanctions for domestic violence offenders on recidivism, defendant and system accountability, and victim safety. Examine factors that influence judicial and prosecutorial decision making in domestic violence cases, and factors that influence victim/witness reluctance in bringing batterers to successful adjudication. Develop a typology of community coordination models, and assess their components and impact on victims' safety, perceptions of system effectiveness, revictimization, and satisfaction with responses. Assess the impact of Model Code provisions regarding child custody and visitation and judicial knowledge of domestic violence issues.

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INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-1 Continued 33 Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Saccuzzo, D., Mandatory Content Custody Mediation Resulting analysis in Formal Recommendations: A Window on Process and Outcome for Violent Families Community Compare child adjustment factors in violent and nonviolent families to determine whether group differences are reflected in custody and visitation plans; study custody decisions resulting from mandatory custody mediation; and evaluate custody decisions in terms of safety. Isaac, N., Medical Records Review of Community Describe, from a legal as Legal Evidence in medical perspective, the Domestic Violence Cases records documentation of domestic violence in abused women's medical charts. Holt, V. L., History of Analysis of County Examine the relationship Intimate-Partner Violence police and between a history of intimate- and the Determination of court data partner violence and Custody and Visitation determination of child Among Couples Petitioning custody and visitation for Dissolution of Marriage agreements among couples who filed for divorce. Crandall, C., Impact Evaluation of a SANE [Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners] Unit in Albuquerque, New Mexico Ford, D., and Bachman, R., A Synthesis of the Research and Evaluation from the VAWA Impact Community evaluation (quasi- experimental) Literature National review Measure the impact of programs in law enforcement, prosecution, and health care services. Review the state of knowledge on the impacts of justice components of the Violence Against Women Act to describe how the act has helped advance knowledge about effective controls. Recommendation 12: The panel recommends that government agencies develop a coordinated strategy to strengthen the creation of a research base that is focused on prevention of violence against women and interventions for offenders and victims. Continued

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34 TABLE 1-1 Continued RESEARCH ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Principal Investigator, Project Title Method Level Project Goal Recommendation 13: The panel recommends that a minimum of three to four research centers be established within academic or other appropriate settings to support the development of studies and training programs focused on violence against women, to provide mechanisms for collaboration between researchers and practitioners and technical assistance for integrating research into service provision. Worden, A., Research on Violence Against Women: Synthesis for Practitioners Literature National review Synthesize research on violence against women to guide practitioners.