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APPENDIX B BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PANEL MEMBERS Dennis L. Hartmann (chair), is chair of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. He holds a Ph.D. in geophysical fluid dynamics Dom Princeton University. His early work used newly acquired satellite data to investigate the dynamical climatology of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. Dr. Hartmann has published more than 100 papers on a wide variety of topics, including radiative-chemical dynamical interactions in the stratosphere, Earth's radiation balance, the role of clouds in climate sensitivity, large-scale dynamics, and numerical modeling. His NRC experience includes the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, the Committee on Earth Studies, and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Meterological Society, and the American Geophysical Union. Alan K Betts holds a Ph.D. in meteorology from Imperial College (U.K.~. In the 1980s Dr. Betts and Martin Miller developed a parameterization of convection for use in global atmospheric models. In contrast to increasingly complex parameterizations involving detailed models of cloud processes, the Betts-Miller scheme takes an "external" view of convection and adjusts the large-scale convective environment toward thermodynamic profiles. Dr. Betts is the chief scientist of Atmospheric Research (Pittsford, Vermont) and is a visiting scientist at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Betts has served on the NRC Advisory Panel for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and has been a reviewer of the NRC reports Emerging Global Water and Energy Initiatives: An Integrated Perspective (1999) and Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling (2001~. 144

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APPENDIX B 145 Gordon B. Bonan is a senior scientist in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) Climate and Global Dynamics Division and is an associate professor adjoins in the University of Colorado's Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. Since 1989 he has worked at NCAR studying the ecological and hydrological processes by which natural and human-mediated changes in land cover affect climate. He serves as an editor for the Journal of Climate and holds a Ph.D. in environmental sciences from the University of Virginia. Lee E. Branscome received his Ph.D. in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1981. He spent several years on the faculty of the University of Miami teaching courses in geophysical fluid dynamics and performing climate dynamics research sponsored by the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As president of Environmental Dynamics Research, Inc., Dr. Branscome has performed weather and climate studies for businesses, law firms, and government agencies since 1988. He has served as president of the National Council of Industrial Meteorologists and chairman of the Board of Certified Consulting Meteorologists of the American Meteorological Society. His current research activities are primarily focused on helping businesses understand and manage their weather and climate risk. Dr. Branscome is a member of the National Council of Industrial Meteorologists, the American Meteorological Society, and the American Geophysical Union. Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., is the Director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center and professor of meteorology at the University of Maryland, College Park. His research interests include climate variablity, the development and application of numerical models combined with in situ and space-based ocean observations to study the tropical ocean response to surface fluxes of momentum and heat, as well as tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system. Dr. Busalacchi has NRC experience as a member of the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions, Committee on Earth Studies, and is presently chair of the Climate Research Committee. He holds a Ph.D. in oceanography from Florida State University. Amanda H. Lynch is an assistant professor in the Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and a fellow of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr.

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146 UNDERSTANDING CLIAl4 TE CHANGE FEEDBACKS Lynch received her Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Melbourne in 1993. Her research interests include climate system modeling, process modeling, and fieldwork on high-latitude climate. Current projects include studies on the interactions atmospheric circulation and sea-ice cover, the effects of vegetation and snow distribution on climate, both past and present, and the hydrological cycle. Dr. Lynch is a member of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union and serves on the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs Advisory Committee. Syukuro Manabe is a visiting research collaborator of the Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at Princeton University. During most of his career he was the leader of the Climate Dynamics Group at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. His group developed a hierarchy of climate models of various complexities, ranging from one-dimensional, radiative-convective models of the atmosphere to three-dimensional models of the coupled ocean- atmosphere-land surface system. Using these models they explored the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the forced and unforced climatic changes of the past, present, and future, in particular, global warming. Dr. Manabe's NRC service includes the Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. He is a honorary member of the American Meteorological Society and the Japan Meteorological Society, and a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Douglas G. Martinson is a Doherty Senior Research Scientist at Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory and an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University. Dr. Martinson's primary research foci are the oceans and their role in climate. In particular, he studies the interactions of air, sea, and ice in high-latitude oceans; how these interactions govern the distribution of sea ice; and how changes in sea- ice cover can affect the world's deep-ocean circulation and global climate. Dr. Martinson's research includes both modeling and observational studies in polar regions, typically during winter months, from ships or camps set up on the sea ice. He is also interested in the relationship between oceans and climate over longer time scales, typically focusing on the role of high- latitude oceans in the onset and termination of the ice ages. Dr. Martinson has previous NRC experience as chairman of the Panel on Climate

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APPENDIX B 147 Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales and as a member of the Climate Research Committee. Raymond Najjar is an associate professor at the Pennsylvania State University. He is an oceanographer with broad research interests. He has studied the global-scale cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients in the ocean, using both observations and models. He is also interested in photochemically produced gases in the sea, particularly carbon monoxide, and is engaged in fieldwork and modeling of this gas. Dr. Najjar also makes simple models of estuaries and their watersheds and uses them to quantify the potential impact of climate change on these systems. He has used numerical models to study past changes in ocean circulation and dissolved oxygen. Dr. Najjar served on the steering committee of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and has written numerous articles in both U.S. and foreign scientific publications. Eugene M. Rasmusson is a Research Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland, College Park. His research expertise lies broadly in seasonal- to-interannual climate variability, with emphasis on the global hydrologic cycle, tropical variability, and the nature and predictability of the E1 Nino- Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Dr. Rasmusson's NRC experience is wide-ranging and includes membership on the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Panel, the Panel on Model-Assimilated Datasets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research, the Committee on USGS Water Resources Research, and the Advisory Panel for the Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. A. R. Ravishankara is a senior scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory and a professor adjoins at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has made fundamental contributions to understanding and quantifying important processes critical to the chemistry of the atmosphere. He has used highly innovative techniques to advance the knowledge of ozone depletion, climate change, and atmospheric pollution, and has thereby played a leadership role in shaping understanding of global chemical changes. Dr. Ravishankara's major research interest is to understand what happens to molecules released into the atmosphere and how these molecules affect the atmosphere. He identifies and quantifies middle- and lower-atmospheric chemical processes through laboratory studies. His group studies the thermal gas phase reactions, photochemical processes, and heterogeneous and multiphase

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148 UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE FEEDBACKS reactions of various chemical species known or expected to be present in the atmosphere. Dian J. Seidel leads the climate variability and trends group at the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory in Silver Spring, Maryland. Her recent research focuses on observational studies of atmospheric temperature and water vapor changes, climate extremes, and meteorological data quality. She is a member of the American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical Union and a recipient of the Professor Dr. Vilho Vaisala Award and the Norbert Gerbier-Mumm Award, both from the World Meteorological Organization, as well as the NOAA Administrator's Award. Dr. Seidel is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society and a former member of the NRC Climate Research Committee. Graeme L. Stephens is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. He received his Ph.D. in 1977 from the University of Melbourne. Dr. Stephens's research activities focus on atmospheric radiation and on the application of remote sensing in climate research, with particular emphasis on understanding the role of hydrological processes in climate change. His work has focused on understanding cloud radiation interactions as relevant to Earth's climate using both theory and numerical modeling as well as analysis of cloud properties from measurements made by satellites and aircraft. Dr. Stephens is currently the principle investigator of NASA's Cloudsat Mission. Dr. Stephens's professional activities currently include editor of a number of leading atmospheric science journals, past chairman of the WCRP GEWEX radiation panel and the American Meteorological Society Atmospheric Radiation panel. He is a fellow of both the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Stephens is a former member of the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Climate Research Committee, and the Committee on Earth Sciences. Lynne D. Talley is a professor of oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego. Dr. Talley's expertise and research interests lie in general ocean circulation, water mass formation, and ocean heat transport. She has an extensive NRC background and currently serves on the Climate Research Committee and was a member of the recent Abrupt Climate Change Committee. She has also served on the Global-Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Panel and Panel to Review the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center. Dr. Talley is a member of the American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological

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APPENDIX B 149 Society, and Oceanography Society, and is a trustee of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. She was a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator in 1987 and received the Rosenstiel Award in 2001 . She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. John M. Wallace is a professor of atmospheric sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. His research specialties include the study of general climate circulation and tropical meteorology. Dr. Wallace has applied innovative dynamical and statistical techniques to pioneer the characterization of atmospheric circulation systems in time and space and their links to ocean and land surface conditions. He discovered the pattern that relates tropical El Nino events to North American climate anomalies. He has contributed to the identification and understanding of a number of atmospheric phenomena, including the vertically propagating planetary waves that drive the quasi-biennial oscillation in zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere, the four- to five-day easterly waves that modulate daily rainfall over the tropical oceans, and the dominant spatial patterns in month-to-month and year-to-year climate variability. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the National Academy of Sciences. Andrew J. Weaver is a professor and Canada Research Chair in Climate Modelling and Analysis in the School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria. He was involved as a lead author in the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change second and third scientific assessments of climate change and currently serves on the U.N. World Climate Research Programme Working Group on Coupled Modelling. He is an editor of the Journal of Climate and a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. His research expertise concerns the role of the ocean in past, present, and future climate. Steven C. Wofsy is the Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University. Dr. Wofsy holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Harvard University. He studies a variety of atmospheric gases using instruments aboard aircraft and also on the ground at long-term measurement sites. His research interests include undertaking theoretical and modeling studies to understand depletion of stratospheric ozone in polar regions, to assess future impacts of pollutants injected into the stratosphere, and to examine ecological and historical factors affecting atmospheric

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150 UNDERSTANDING CLIAL4 TE CHANGE FEEDBACKS concentrations of CO2. In 2001 Dr. Wofsy received the Distinguished Public Service Medal from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Eric F. Wood is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Princeton University, where he has taught since 1976. He received his Sc.D. in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1974 to 1976 he was a resident scholar at the Institute of Applied Systems Analysis in Austria. His research areas include hydroclimatology with an emphasis on land-atmospheric interaction, hydrological remote sensing, and hydrologic impact of climate change. He is also a member of the NRC Committee on Hydrological Sciences, where he serves as chair. He is a former member of the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and the Water Science and Technology Board. Dr. Wood is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and of the American Meteorological Society. He has received the Robert E. Horton Award and the Rheinstein Award and has conducted a Robert E. Horton Memorial Lectureship.