CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). 2002. Report to Congress: Appropriateness of Minimum Nurse Staffing Ratios in Nursing Homes—Phase II Final Report: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [Online]. Available: www.cms.gov/medicaid/reports/rp1201home.asp “last modified on Wednesday, June 12, 2002” [accessed on June, 25, 2002].


Dawson D, Reid K. 1997. Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature 388:235.

Decker D, Wheeler G, Johnson J, Parsons R. 2001. Effect of organizational change on the individual employee. The Health Care Manager 19(4):1–12.


Gelinas L, Manthey M. 1997. The impact of organizational redesign on nurse executive leadership. Journal of Nursing Administration 27(10):35–42.


Ingersoll G, Fisher M, Ross B, Soja M, Kidd N. 2001. Employee response to major organizational redesign. Applied Nursing Research 14(1):18–28.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2001. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Kahn K, Rogers W, Rubenstein L, Sherwood M, Reinisch E, Keeler E, Draper D, Kosecoff J, Brook R. 1990. Measuring quality of care with explicit process criteria before and after implementation of the DRG-based prospective payment system. Journal of the American Medical Association 264(15):1969–1973.

Kramer M, Schmalenberg C. 1993. Learning from success: Autonomy and empowerment. Nursing Management 24(5):58–64.


Lamond N, Dawson D. 1998. Quantifying the Performance Impairment Associated With Sustained Wakefulness. South Australia: The Centre for Sleep Research, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital. [Online]. Available: http://cf.alpha.org/internet/projects/ftdt/backgr/Daw_Lam.html [accessed July 7, 2003].

Leape L, Bates D, Cullen D, Cooper J, Demonaco H, Gallivan T, Hallisey R, Ives J, Laird N, Laffel G, Nemeskal R, Petersen L, Porter K, Servi D, Shea B, Small S, Sweitzer B, Thompson B, Vander Vleit M. 1995. Systems analysis of adverse drug events. Journal of the American Medical Association 274(1):35–43.


Mitchell P, Shortell S. 1997. Adverse outcomes and variations in organization of care delivery. Medical Care 35:NS 19–32.


Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Mattke S, Stewart M, Zelevinsky K. 2002. Nurse-staffing levels and the quality of care in hospitals. The New England Journal of Medicine 346(22):1715–1722.


Pabst M, Scherubel J, Minnick A. 1996. The impact of computerized documentation on nurses’ use of time. Computers in Nursing 14(1):25–30.

Pepper G. 1995. Errors in drug administration by nurses. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 52:390–395.


Rubenstein L, Chang B, Keeler E, Kahn K. 1992. Measuring the quality of nursing surveillance activities for five diseases before and after implementation of the drug-based prospective payment system. In: Patient Outcomes Research: Examining the Effectiveness of Nursing Practice. Proceedings of the State of the Science Conference. Bethesda, MD: NIH, National Center for Nursing Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Seago J. 2001. Nurse staffing, models of care delivery, and interventions. In: Shojania K, Duncan B, McDonald K, Wachter R, eds. Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 43. Rockville, MD: AHRQ.

Smeltzer C, Hines P, Beebe H, Keller B. 1996. Streamlining documentation: An opportunity to reduce costs and increase nurse clinicians’ time with patients. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 10(4):66–77.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement