main research interests are in the ethics of scientific research, particularly in the ethical issues in the design of clinical trials, ethical issues raised by conflicts of interest, and ethical issues regarding intellectual property rights in biotechnology. Dr. Brody has served on a number of NIH data and safety monitoring boards and is a Fellow of the Hastings Center. Dr. Brody was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2001.

Robert M. Califf, M.D., Director of the Duke Clinical Research Unit, and Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology, and Associate Vice Chancellor for Clinical Research at the Duke University Medical Center. Dr. Califf’s research focuses on clinical and economic outcomes in chronic ischemic heart disease. He has led a number of long-term clinical trials evaluating a range of cardiovascular treatments and procedures. He is a fellow of the American College of Cardiology, and a certified specialist in internal medicine and cardiovascular diseases. Dr. Califf has served on several National Research Council committees including the Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices.

Joseph P. Costantino, Dr.P.H., Professor of Biostatistics at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. His research interests are in the design, implementation, and analysis of clinical trials. He has worked on the development of statistical methodologies for cancer risk assessment and risk-benefit assessment of therapies with multiple endpoints. He also is the Associate Director of the Biostatistical Center of the National Surgical Breast and Bowel Project and serves as the coordinating statistician for prevention trials of the project.

Daniel D. Federman, M.D., Senior Dean for Alumni Relations and Clinical Teaching and the Carl W. Walter Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Medical Education at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Federman’s research interests focus on reproductive endocrinology, the physiology of gender differences, and the ethics of health and medical care. Dr. Federman is an IOM member who has served on a number of committees, including the Committee to Study the Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies (serving as co-chair), the Committee to Assess the System for Protecting Human Research Participants (serving as chair), and the Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences.

Linda P. Fried, M.D., M.P.H., Director of the Center on Aging and Health and the Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, and Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Policy at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Her core research interests are prevention and health promo-



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