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FUTURE NEEDS IN DEEP SUBMERGENCE SCIENCE Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research Committee on Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for ap- propriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. OCE-0318698 between the National Acad- emy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Number 2004101150 International Standard Book Number 0-309-09114-4 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52917-4 (PDF) Cover art shows a compilation of images of deep submergence vehicles. The Na- tional Research Council would like to thank the contributors listed below: De- partment of the Navy, Naval Historical Center provided a schematic of the USS Monitor and a line drawing representation of the H.L. Hunley; Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution supplied a drawing of Alvin as well as an Alvin schematic; M. Johnson (committee member), created a line drawing of Oceaneering's remotely operated vehicle, MAGNUM. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating soci- ety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedi- cated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal gov- ernment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in provid- ing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering com- munities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON FUTURE NEEDS IN DEEP SUBMERGENCE SCIENCE JOHN A. ARMSTRONG (Chair), IBM (retired), Amherst, Massachusetts KEIR BECKER, University of Miami, Florida THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BRUCE OILMAN, Sonsub, Inc. (retired), Houston, Texas MARK JOHNSON, British Petroleum, Houston, Texas MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La lolla, California DHUGAL LINDSAY, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Japan CATHERINE MEVEL, Laboratoire de Geosciences Marines, Paris, France SHAHRIAR NEGAHDARIPOUR, University of Miami, Florida SHIRLEY POMPONI, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida BRUCE ROBISON, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California ANDREW SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts GREG ZACHARIAS, Charles River Analytics, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts Staff DAN WALKER, Study Director JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant The work of this committee was overseen by the Ocean Studies Board. V
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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD NANCY RABALAIS (Chair), Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LARRY CROWDER, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina RICHARD B. DERISO, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La lolla, California ROBERT B. DITTON, Texas A&M University, College Station EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCK, Texas A&M University, College Station PAUL G. GAFFNEY II, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey WAYNE R. GEYER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts STANLEY R. HART, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La lolla, California RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological Survey, Hartford WILLIAM F. MARCUSON III, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Vicksburg, Mississippi JULIAN P. MCCREARY, OR., University of Hawaii, Honolulu JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbus, South Carolina SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett SHIRLEY A. POMPONI, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida FRED N. SPIESS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La lolla, California ION G. SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director DAN WALKER, Acting Director JENNIFER MERRILL, Senior Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer ALAN B. SIELEN, Visiting Scholar ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant BYRON MASON, Senior Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant TERESIA WILMORE, Project Assistant v
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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants at the first meet- ing and workshop held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meetings. These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed ses- sions that followed. lames Bellingham, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Peter Brewer, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Robert Embley, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Charles Fisher, Pennsylvania State University Dan Fornari, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Patty Fryer, University of Hawaii and Deep Submergence Science Committee (DESSC) Henry Fuchs, University of North Carolina Dale Green, Benthos, Inc. km Newman, Woods Hole Marine Systems, Inc. Richard Pittenger, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Tim Shank, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Edith Widder, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution lames Yoder, National Science Foundation Dana Yoerger, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Mark Zumberge, Scripps Institution of Oceanography The committee is also grateful to a number of people who provided important discussion material and helped to ensure the accuracy of the . . via
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vIll ACKNOWLEDGMENTS report: Peter Auster; Bob Ballard; Stace Beaulieu; Bob Brown; Robert Carney; Robert Collier; members of the Deep Submergence Science Committee; Dolly Dieter; Jennifer Dreyer; Fred Duennebier; Bob Elder; Richard Fiske; Patricia Fryer; lords Gieskes; R. Grant Gilmore, fr.; Stephen Hammond; Mat Heintz; lames Heirtzler; Taylor Heyl; lerilyn Hill; Susan Humphris; Jeff Karson; Christopher Kelley; Terry Kerby; John Marr; Marcia McNutt; Anne McGehee Mills; Barbara Moore; David Naar; Frank Parrish; Eric Powell; Andrea Sanico; Andy Shepard; Eli Silver; Craig Smith; Ken Smith; Fred Spiess; David Stein; Robert Steneck; Robert Stern; Bradley Stevens; Shozo Tashiro; Kevin Threadgold; Maurice Tivey; Karen Von Damm; Barry Walden; Megan Ward; Bob Waters; lohn Wiltshire; Edward Winterer; Beecher Wooding. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pub- lished report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confi- dential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: MILLARD FIREBAUGH, Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut PATRICIA FRYER, University of Hawaii, Manoa lOHN HEIDELBERG, Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland SUSAN HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutior Woods Hole, Massachusetts n, ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of California, San Diego MARCIA MCNUTT, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California DONALD WALSH, International Maritime, Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon EDITH WIDDER, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclu- sions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS MIX before its release. The review of this report was overseen by RADM lohn B. Mooney, U.S. Navy (retired), I. Brad Mooney, Associates, Ltd., ap- pointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all re- view comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Preface The remarkable progress in deep ocean science in the past 40 years has been made possible in part by a set of observational platforms and instruments whose capabilities have continued to improve at a very high rate. Some of these platforms support human observers and pilots; some do not. As in the exploration and scientific investigation of space, to which deep ocean science is occasionally but inappropriately analogized, the role of human-occupied versus remotely controlled or autonomous robotic devices is occasionally the subject of disagreement within the deep ocean science community, even though there is little disagreement that enhanced capabilities are needed. The National Science Foundation's Division of Ocean Sciences asked the National Academies' Ocean Studies Board to study future needs in deep submergence science, with a charge to report on the scientific oppor- tunities as well as on the mix of assets and facilities required to exploit those opportunities. As usual, the committee included recognized experts in scientific and engineering disciplines relevant to the charge. As chair and as an outsider to this specific field, it is a pleasure to commend the committee, all of whose members were diligent in their engagement with our study, and all of whom, without exception, made significant contri- butions to this report. I believe all members of the committee have an enlarged and deepened understanding of the future needs of deep sub- mergence science as a result of our study. Other members of the deep ocean science community gave generously of their time and insight as well, both in presentations and discussion at our meetings and in thought- ful contributions to the committee's web site. x~
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X11 PREFACE Finally, it is a pleasure to recognize the outstanding work of the study director, Dan Walker, who brought to our task both broad knowledge of ocean science and great skill in the conduct of National Research Council studies. He was ably assisted by Toanne Bintz, program officer, Tohn Dandelski, research associate, and Sarah Capote, project assistant. Tohn A Armstrong, Chair Committee on Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science
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Contents PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION Deep Submergence Science, 11 Scope of This Report, 16 Organization of the Report, 20 1X 1 9 2 UNDERSTANDING DEEP SUBMERGENCE SCIENCE 23 Notable Areas for Potential Contribution Within the Geosciences, 26 Notable Areas for Potential Contribution Within the Biological Sciences, 36 Ocean Exploration, 40 Future Needs, 41 3 OVERVIEW OF EXISTING AND PLANNED ASSETS Human-Occupied Vehicles, 46 Remotely Operated Vehicles, 51 Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, 56 Fixed Ocean Observatories, 57 The National Deep Submergence Facility, 58 Patterns of Use, 59 Demand, 66 Capabilities Needed to Reach Science Goals, 67 Conclusion, 74 x~ 43
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XIV 4 ADDRESSING THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DEEP SUBMERGENCE ASSETS Improved Utilization of Existing Assets, 78 Developing New Assets, 81 Approaches to Constructing a New HOV: The Current Study, 90 Conclusion, 102 5 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Problems with Accessibility, 106 Developing New Assets, 108 REFERENCES APPENDIXES COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES B ACRONYMS C INTERNATIONAL AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES fASON II AND THE NEW HOV ESTIMATED SUBSYSTEM WEIGHTS AND COSTS CONTENTS 77 105 113 117 125 127 133