ment of proficiency in algebra. Such longitudinal studies of algebra learning could be designed to examine how particular configurations of curricular and pedagogical choices affect what students learn. For example, do students whose experiences with number and operations are designed to develop deep conceptual understanding and procedural fluency fare differently in algebra than those whose opportunities to learn emphasize applications and modeling? How do differences in the development of arithmetic fluency affect the development of students’ algebraic proficiency?
Initially, the work involved will be to design careful procedures for longitudinal data collection. Doing so will hinge on Initiative 3, in which input and outcomes measures are tested and developed. While the fruits of this research would not be expected in the early years of the program, designing the data collection effort early and carefully will be critical to high-quality analysis further down the road.