He has published widely on human associative memory, language, memory, cognition, and the adaptive character of thought. He has a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

Deborah Loewenberg Ball is a professor of educational studies at the University of Michigan. Her work as a researcher and teacher educator draws directly and indirectly on her long experience as an elementary classroom teacher. With elementary school mathematics as the main context for the work, Ball studies instruction, professional education, and teacher learning. Her work also examines efforts to improve teaching through policy, reform initiatives, and teacher education. Ball’s publications include articles on teacher learning and teacher education, the role of subject-matter knowledge in teaching and learning to teach, endemic challenges of teaching, and the relations of policy and practice in instructional reform. She is a member of the National Research Council’s Mathematical Science Education Board and its Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and she recently served as a member of the Glenn Commission. Ball has a Ph.D. from Michigan State University.

Jill Harrison Berg is a national board certified teacher on sabbatical from Cambridge Public Schools while serving as a doctoral fellow at Harvard University Graduate School of Education. Her research interest is improving teacher practice and student learning through reflection. Her work in teacher education extends from giving workshops for pre-service teachers, consulting with school teams about implementation of best practices, presenting workshops at local and national conferences, to supporting teacher candidates for national board certification. She is committed to supporting work that recognizes the importance of the practitioner’s perspective in developing educational endeavors and has collaborated on special projects with many organizations, including Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), Project Zero, WGBH, UNICEF, TERC investigations, and the Massachusetts Department of Education. She is the author of a book on improving the quality of teaching through national board certification.

Susan Carey recently joined Harvard University as a professor of psychology. Previously she was a professor of psychology at



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