Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

ACT. See Algebra Cognitive Tutor

Adaptive reasoning, 67

Adding It Up, 87, 99

Adult-child conversation

one-on-one or small group, 43

Algebra, 5, 87–101

importance of, 87

research agenda initiatives, 5, 97–101

student knowledge, 87–93

teacher knowledge, 93–97

Algebra assessments

developing for various grade levels, 5, 100

Algebra Cognitive Tutor (ACT), 92–95, 98

Algorithms

buggy, 69

rigid application of, 69

Alternative approaches

to the teaching and learning of algebra, 5, 97–98

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 28, 125

benchmarks, 127

textbook review, 128

American Association of Physics Teachers, 119

Analogy phonics, 38

Analytic phonics, 38

Answers

teachers relinquishing control of, 76

Argumentation, 132–133

science as, 134

Assessments, 25, 167–171

bias in, 19–20

early mathematics, 4, 81–84

elements of an agenda for, 169–171

formative, in classroom to assist learning, 167–168

for program evaluation, 167–169

of student knowledge of algebra, 92–93

of student knowledge of early reading, 37–39

of student knowledge of physics, 114–115

of student knowledge of science across the school years, 134–135

of student learning of elementary mathematics, 75–76

summative, to determine student attainment levels, 167–168

Assessments of reading comprehension

beyond the early years, 54–56

comprehending text on the revised SAT, 60

formative and summative, 3, 58–61

measuring recall alone, 59

B

Basal readers, 39, 46

Benchmarks

for reading comprehension, 4, 63–65

Big Math for Little Kids, 70

Bill Nye, the Science Guy, 102

Buggy algorithms, 69

Business management

insights from, 23

Business math, 87

C

Calculus, 87

Carnegie Melon University, 92, 94–95

Case, Robbie, 73

Central conceptual structures, 72



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda Index A AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science ACT. See Algebra Cognitive Tutor Adaptive reasoning, 67 Adding It Up, 87, 99 Adult-child conversation one-on-one or small group, 43 Algebra, 5, 87–101 importance of, 87 research agenda initiatives, 5, 97–101 student knowledge, 87–93 teacher knowledge, 93–97 Algebra assessments developing for various grade levels, 5, 100 Algebra Cognitive Tutor (ACT), 92–95, 98 Algorithms buggy, 69 rigid application of, 69 Alternative approaches to the teaching and learning of algebra, 5, 97–98 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 28, 125 benchmarks, 127 textbook review, 128 American Association of Physics Teachers, 119 Analogy phonics, 38 Analytic phonics, 38 Answers teachers relinquishing control of, 76 Argumentation, 132–133 science as, 134 Assessments, 25, 167–171 bias in, 19–20 early mathematics, 4, 81–84 elements of an agenda for, 169–171 formative, in classroom to assist learning, 167–168 for program evaluation, 167–169 of student knowledge of algebra, 92–93 of student knowledge of early reading, 37–39 of student knowledge of physics, 114–115 of student knowledge of science across the school years, 134–135 of student learning of elementary mathematics, 75–76 summative, to determine student attainment levels, 167–168 Assessments of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 54–56 comprehending text on the revised SAT, 60 formative and summative, 3, 58–61 measuring recall alone, 59 B Basal readers, 39, 46 Benchmarks for reading comprehension, 4, 63–65 Big Math for Little Kids, 70 Bill Nye, the Science Guy, 102 Buggy algorithms, 69 Business management insights from, 23 Business math, 87 C Calculus, 87 Carnegie Melon University, 92, 94–95 Case, Robbie, 73 Central conceptual structures, 72

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda Change resistance to, 23 in students’ evolving knowledge, monitoring, 111 Cheche Konnen project, 134 Children entering kindergarten behind their peers challenge of, 68 Children’s magazines, 102 Children’s Math Worlds, 70 Clement, John, 104 Cognitively Guided Instruction, 86 Collaborative learning, 57 Committee on Scientific Principles for Education Research, 146, 148 Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 35 Competence strategic, 67 Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS), 116–117 Content material including less, but at greater depth, 129 “Cooperative learning,” 53 Criteria for choosing research topics, 26–27 existing rigorous R&D efforts already showing promising gains in student achievement, 1–2, 26 pervasive problems of practice lacking knowledge base to guide instructional interventions, 2, 26 CTBS. See Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills Curriculum and pedagogy for reading instruction in first through third grade, 36–37 in student knowledge of algebra, 91–92 in student knowledge of early reading, 35–37 in student knowledge of physics, 110–114 in student knowledge of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 51–54 in student knowledge of science across the school years, 127–134 in student learning of elementary mathematics, 70–75 D Data collection systems, 143, 148 Decoding language, 32–33, 46 Decontextualized language instruction in the early years, 34 Decontextualized language structures, 33, 57 Diagnoser program, 115, 123 Differentiating instruction, 40–41 Discovery Channel, 102 DiSessa, Andrea, 18, 104 E Early mathematics assessments, 4, 81–84 implementing standards-based, 83–84 teacher understanding of, 83 technology support needed to assist teachers, 83 Early reading, 2–3, 31–49 research agenda initiatives, 3, 41–49 student knowledge, 31–39 teacher knowledge, 39–41 Early Reading First Guidelines, 42 Early reading preparedness, 3, 42–43 increased use of one-on-one or small group, adult-child conversation, 43 professional development programs on vocabulary and oral language development, 43 use of read-alouds, 43 use of science-, number-, or world-knowledge-focused curricula, 43 Educational Development Center, 71 Eisenhower math-science programs, 119 Elementary mathematics, 4–5, 66–87 research agenda initiatives, 4–5, 80–87 student learning, 66–76 teacher knowledge, 76–80 Embedded phonics, 38 Empirical investigation methods of, 129–131 posing significant questions for, 143–144 Evaluation. See Assessments Everyday Mathematics curriculum, 71, 76, 151 Exemplary teaching practice learning from, 45 Expected progression of student thinking, 16 Experimentation, 126 F Follow-through, 19 Force Concept Inventory, 111–112, 114, 118–119, 134, 138, 168 Formative assessments in classroom to assist learning, 167–168 of reading comprehension, 3, 58–61

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda G Generalizing across studies, 148–149 Goals of school science reformulating, 129 Griffin, Sharon, 73 H Hennessey, Sister Mary Gertrude, 131 Hestenes, David, 112 I Implementation amounts of variability in, 122–123 In-service education, 99 Informal mathematical reasoning building on children’s, 68 Instructional interventions to move students along a learning path, 16 Instructional practices promoting reading comprehension, 3–4, 62–63 Instructional programs differentiating, 6, 121 Integrated learning-instruction models developing and evaluating, 6, 137–138 Integrated reading instruction, 40 developing and testing reading intervention, 46 learning from exemplary practice, 45 Interdependence of student learning, teacher knowledge, and organizational environment, 20–24 Investigation using methods permitting direct, 146–147 Investigations in Number, Data and Space curriculum, 71 K Kindergarten challenge of children entering behind their peers, 68 “Knowledge packages,” 82 Knowledge-rich goal-focused inquiry science as, 130 Knowledge tracing, 94 L Language development, 32 Learning formative assessment in classroom to assist, 167–168 trajectory for teachers, 22 “Lift,” 133 Linguistic level text comprehension involving processing at, 50 M Ma, Liping, 77–79, 84 Magic School Bus, 102 Math Trailblazers curriculum, 71 Mathematics, 4–5, 28, 66–101 algebra, 5, 87–101 contribution to future earnings, 88 contribution to test results, 27 elementary mathematics, 4–5, 66–87 Mazur, Ed, 106 McDermott, Lillian, 104 Meaningful comparisons developing assessment instruments to anchor, 138–139 Medical metaphor, 11–14 “Mental counting line,” 72 Metacognition developing, 52–53 Metacognitive strategy instruction, 54, 57 developing materials for teachers using, 3, 61–62 Metz, Kathleen, 129–130 Modeling, 94, 131–132 instruction in high school physics, 112 introducing physics as, 111 science as, 133 Models of integrated reading instruction, 3, 44–46 Momentum misconceptions about, 18 N NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 36, 75, 102 National Center for Education Statistics, 36, 102

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 82, 95, 99 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 10, 31, 38, 44, 46–49, 52, 55, 58 National Reading Panel, 31, 40, 44, 48–49, 54, 58 National Research Council (NRC), 10, 19, 31, 67, 88, 125, 142, 145, 150, 170 Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 35 science standards, 127 National Science Foundation (NSF), 71 curricula supported by, 86, 97–98, 147 teacher enhancement projects, 119 NCTM. See National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Newtonian mechanics, 104–105, 118 No Child Left Behind legislation, 43 NRC. See National Research Council NSF. See National Science Foundation Number-knowledge-focused curricula, 43 Number Knowledge Test, 70, 73–75, 168 Number words ability to verbally count using, 73 Number Worlds curriculum, 70, 73–75, 86, 168 O One-on-one adult-child conversation, 43 One-to-one correspondence ability to count with, 73 Organizational environment hampering adoption and use of improved instructional methods, 22–23 interdependent with student learning and teacher knowledge, 20–24 Organizing knowledge around core concepts subtraction with regrouping, 76–80 P PALS. See Virginia Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening Pasteur’s quadrant, 11 Payne, Roger, 130 Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT), 75 Phonemic awareness, 34 “Phonics” instruction, 32–33, 38, 40 analogy phonics, 38 analytic phonics, 38 embedded phonics, 38 phonics through spelling, 38 in student knowledge of early reading, 38 synthetic phonics, 38 Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening (PALS), 39 Physics, 5–6, 103–124 research agenda initiatives, 6, 120–124 student knowledge, 103–115 teacher knowledge, 115–120 Physics Education Group, 106–107 Physics teaching resource agent (PTRA) program, 119–120 PIAT. See Peabody Individual Achievement Test Poverty and math ability, 75 Practice bridging gap with research, 19 bridging gap with theory, 145 focus on, 10–14, 21, 29 Pre-service education, 99 Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 31, 39 Primary school mathematics, 72–75 ability to count with one-to-one correspondence, 73 ability to “mentally stimulate” the sensorimotor counting, 73 ability to recognize quantity as set size, 73 ability to verbally count using number words, 73 Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. See National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Procedural fluency, 67 Productive disposition, 67 Professional development programs on vocabulary and oral language development, 43 Professional scrutiny and critique disclosing research for, 149–150 Proficiency mathematical, 67 needed to meet demands of modern life, 27 Program evaluation assessment for, 167–169 Progression of student understanding in student knowledge of algebra, 89–91 in student knowledge of early reading, 31–34 in student knowledge of physics, 104–110 in student knowledge of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 51

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda in student knowledge of science across the school years, 125–127 in student learning of elementary mathematics, 68–69 PTRA. See Physics teaching resource agent Q Quality. See Research quality and impact Quantity as set size ability to recognize, 73 Questioning the author, 52–53, 61 Questions schematic, for teaching and learning, 15 R RAND, 47, 67 Reading Study Group, 49–52, 54, 56 R&D. See Research and development base in education Read-alouds, 43 Readers assessment of, 55 Reading, 2–4, 28, 30–65 See also Early reading Reading comprehension beyond the early years, 3–4, 49–65 contribution to test results, 27 prominence in learning of most subject areas, 28 research agenda initiatives, 3–4, 58–65 student knowledge, 49–56 teacher knowledge, 56–58 Reading Excellence Act, 42 Reading intervention developing and testing, 46 Reading Mastery program, 41 Reasoning adaptive, 67 providing a coherent and explicit chain of, 147–148 Recall alone measuring, 59 Reciprocal teaching, 53, 57, 61 “Reflective assessment,” 121 in ThinkerTools, 113, 116–117, 151 Replication across studies, 148–149 independent, 20 Research agenda criteria for choosing topics, 26–27 framework for, 24–29 research domains, 27–29 Research agenda initiatives in algebra, 5, 97–101 alternative approaches to teaching and learning, 5, 97–98 developing assessments for various grade levels, 5, 100 knowledge of mathematics needed to teach effectively, 5, 99 students’ proficiency over time with algebra as a K-12 topic, 5, 100–101 Research agenda initiatives in early reading, 3, 41–49 knowledge requirements for teachers, 3, 47–49 models of integrated reading instruction, 3, 44–46 narrowing the gap in preparedness for, 3, 42–43 Research agenda initiatives in elementary mathematics, 4–5, 80–87 developing better assessments, 4, 81–84 evaluating and comparing curricular approaches to teaching number and operations, 4–5, 85–87 knowledge required to teach, 4, 84–85 Research agenda initiatives in physics, 6, 120–124 differentiating instructional programs and identifying successful outcomes, 6, 121 scalability of promising curricula in different school contexts, 6, 121–123 teacher knowledge requirements for effective use of a curriculum, 6, 123–124 Research agenda initiatives in reading comprehension beyond the early years, 3–4, 58–65 benchmarks for, 4, 63–65 developing materials for teachers using metacognitive strategy instruction, 3, 61–62 formative and summative assessments of, 3, 58–61 instructional practices promoting, 3–4, 62–63 Research agenda initiatives in science education across the school years, 6, 135–141 developing and evaluating integrated learning-instruction models, 6, 137–138

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda developing assessment instruments to anchor meaningful comparisons, 138–139 evaluating standards for science achievement, 6, 141 teacher knowledge requirements, 6, 140 Research and development (R&D) base in education, 1–2, 14–17 assessing a student’s progress given general and discipline-specific norms and practices to support student learning, 16–17 bridging gap with practice, 19 elements of an agenda for assessment, 169–171 expected progression of student thinking based on knowledge of students’ common understandings and preconceptions of a topic, 16 improving, 17–20 instructional interventions to move students along a learning path, 16 misconceptions about momentum, 18 schematic questions for teaching and learning, 15 what students should know or be able to do, 15 Research quality and impact, 7–8, 142–151 disclosing research for professional scrutiny and critique, 149–150 linking research to relevant theory, 145–146 posing significant questions for empirical investigation, 143–144 providing a coherent and explicit chain of reasoning, 147–148 replicating and generalizing across studies, 148–149 using methods permitting direct investigation, 146–147 Revised SAT comprehending text on, 60 S SAT comprehending text on revised, 60 Scalability of promising physics curricula in different school contexts, 6, 121–123 Schematic questions for teaching and learning, 15 Science, 5–6, 28, 102–141 as argumentation, 134 as knowledge-rich goal-focused inquiry, 130 as modeling, 133 physics, 5–6, 103–124 as theory building, 130 Science education across the school years, 6, 124–141 research agenda initiatives, 6, 135–141 student knowledge, 124–135 student knowledge of, 124–135 teacher knowledge, 135 weakness in, 28 Science for All Americans, 125 Science-knowledge-focused curricula, 43 Scientific category system helping students recognize objects and events within a, 111 Scientific Research in Education, 142 Scientists thinking like, 105, 126 Semantic level text comprehension involving processing at, 50 Sensorimotor counting ability to “mentally stimulate,” 73 SERP. See Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP) Small group, adult-child conversation, 43 Spelling phonics through, 38 Standardized tests shortcomings of, 169 Standards-based assessments implementing, 83–84 Standards for science achievement evaluating, 6, 141 Strategic competence, 67 Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), 1–2, 7–10, 21, 61, 98, 129, 136, 138–139, 141–144, 149–151, 167–171 dealing with organizational issues, 23–25 field sites for, 7, 87, 122 mission of, 9 networks of, 28–30, 63 opportunity to develop integrated assessment system, 82, 123 Strategy instruction, 52 Student achievement existing rigorous R&D efforts already showing promising gains in, 1–2, 26 over time, with algebra as a K-12 topic, 5, 100–101 summative assessment to determine, 167–168

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda Student knowledge fostering long-term development of, 129 interdependent with teacher knowledge and organizational environment, 20–24 Student knowledge of algebra, 87–93 assessment, 92–93 curriculum and pedagogy, 91–92 progression of student understanding in algebra, 89–91 what children should know and be able to do, 88–89 Student knowledge of early reading, 31–39 assessment, 37–39 curriculum and pedagogy, 35–37 curriculum components for reading instruction in first through third grade, 36–37 decontextualized language instruction in the early years, 34 phonics instructional approaches, 38 progression of understanding, 31–34 what children should know and be able to do, 31 Student knowledge of elementary mathematics, 66–76 assessment, 75–76 buggy algorithms, 69 curriculum development, 70–75 primary school mathematics, 72–75 progression of understanding, 68–69 rigid application of algorithms, 69 what children should know and be able to do, 66–67 Student knowledge of physics, 103–115 assessment, 114–115 curriculum and pedagogy, 110–114 modeling instruction in high school physics, 112 progression of student understanding in algebra, 104–110 understanding electrical circuits, 106–107 understanding fluid/medium effects and gravitational effects, 108–109 what children should know and be able to do, 103–104 Student knowledge of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 49–56 assessment, 54–56 curriculum and pedagogy, 51–54 progression of understanding, 51 text comprehension involving processing at different levels, 50 what children should know and be able to do, 49–50 Student knowledge of science across the school years, 124–135 assessment, 134–135 curriculum and pedagogy, 127–134 progression of student understanding, 125–127 what children should know and be able to do, 124–125 Subtraction with regrouping, 76–80 Success for All program, 41 Successful outcomes identifying, 6, 121 Summative assessments to determine student attainment levels, 167–168 of reading comprehension, 3, 58–61 Surface-level reading, 52 “Symbolic fluency,” 91 Synthetic phonics, 38 T Teacher knowledge accounting for variance in students’ achievement scores, 21 of how to integrate research insights into instructional practice, 41, 54 interdependent with student learning and organizational environment, 20–24 for reading comprehension beyond the early years, 56–58 for science education across the school years, 6, 135, 140 teachers needed to convey, 80 Teacher knowledge of algebra, 5, 93–97, 99 Algebra Cognitive Tutor (ACT), 92–95, 98 Teacher knowledge of early reading, 3, 39–41, 47–49 differentiating instruction, 40–41 integrating instruction, 40 Teacher knowledge of elementary mathematics, 4, 76–80, 84–85 organizing knowledge around core concepts—subtraction with regrouping, 76–80 Teacher knowledge of physics, 115–120 Force Concept Inventory, 111–112, 114, 118–119, 134, 138, 168 needed for effective use of a physics curriculum, 6, 123–124 reflective assessment in ThinkerTools, 113, 116–117, 151

OCR for page 181
Learning and Instruction: A SERP Research Agenda Teacher understanding of assessments, 83 Teaching Children to Read, 31 Teaching number and operations evaluating and comparing curricular approaches to, 4–5, 85–87 Technology support needed to assist teachers, 83 Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI), 39 Text assessment of, 55–56 complexity of, 64–65 Text comprehension involving processing at different levels, 50 linguistic level, 50 semantic level, 50 in student knowledge of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 50 understanding level, 50 Text talk, 53, 61 Theory bridging gap with practice, 145 developing, 145–146 linking research to relevant, 145–146 Theory building science as, 130 ThinkerTools reflective assessment in, 113, 116–117, 151 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 102, 128 3-2-1 Contact, 102 TIMSS. See Third International Mathematics and Science Study TPRI. See Texas Primary Reading Inventory Transferring strategy use, 54 Travel metaphor, 25–26 U Understanding conceptual, 67 electrical circuits, 106–107 fluid/medium effects and gravitational effects, 108–109 Understanding level text comprehension involving processing at, 50 University of Arizona, 112 University of Washington Physics Education Group, 106–107 U.S. Department of Education, 142 V Virginia Phonological Awareness and Literacy Screening (PALS), 39 W What children should know and be able to do, 15 in knowledge of algebra, 88–89 in knowledge of early reading, 31 in knowledge of physics, 103–104 in knowledge of reading comprehension beyond the early years, 49–50 in knowledge of science across the school years, 124–125 in learning of elementary mathematics, 66–67 World-knowledge-focused curricula, 43