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_ _ D._~~ ~~~ ~~_~_~ I _ alayla,uelt.-al aAe`L.-uee MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE Richard T. lohnson, M.D., Chair, is Distinguished Service Professor of Neu- rology, Microbiology and Neuroscience at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health. He also is the editor of Annals of Neurology. His clinical and research work during the past 30 years has focused on infections of the nervous system, particularly inflammatory and demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases. The author of more than 250 papers and the book Viral Infections of the Nervous System, Dr. Johnson is a special consultant to the National Institutes of Health and an elected member of the Institute of Medicine. He presently chairs the IOM Committee on Spinal Cord Injury: Strategies in a Search for a Cure. Harvey Alter, M.D., is chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and associate director of research at the National Institutes of Health Department of Transfusion. He also is codiscoverer of the Australia antigen, a key to de- tecting hepatitis B virus, and has been instrumental in the near-elimination of transfusion-associated hepatitis in the United States. His clinical research currently focuses on uncovering the causes and reducing the risks of trans- fusion-associated hepatitis. Dr. Alter is a Lasker Award recipient and an elected member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. Dean O. Cliver, Ph.D., is a professor of food safety at the University of California, Davis, and a professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin, 243

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244 ADVANCING PRION SCIENCE Madison. His research interests include disease transmission through food and water. His laboratory is the World Health Organization's Collaborat- ing Center for Food Virology. He has served as a member of the Food and Drug Administration's Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advi- sory Committee and belongs to several scientific associations. A member of the editorial boards of various scholarly journals, Dr. Cliver has partici- pated in several workshops and has published nearly 200 articles and books. Roger Dodd, Ph.D., is executive director for Biomedical Safety and head of the Transmissible Diseases Department at the American Red Cross's Hol- land Laboratory. His research interests include the epidemiology of infec- tious disease, with special reference to blood transfusion. An adviser to the World Health Organization, he has coauthored numerous papers regarding laboratory testing for retrovirus infection, hepatitis, viral inactivation, and blood transfusion. Dr. Dodd was president of the American Association of Blood Banks during the 2002-2003 term and served on its board. In addi- tion, he is a member of the American Association of Immunologists, Sigma Xi, the American Society of Microbiology, and the International Society for Blood Transfusion. Frederick Murphy, D.V.M., Ph.D., is dean emeritus and professor at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. Formerly, he directed the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He has been a leader in viral pathogenesis, viral characterization, and taxonomy. His interests include public health policy; vaccine development; and new, emerging, and reemerging diseases. A recipient of the Presidential Rank Award, he belongs to the German Acad- emy of Natural Sciences and the National Academies' Institute of Medicine. Dr. Murphy cochaired the National Research Council's Committee on Oc- cupational Health and Safety in the Care of Human Primates. He presently serves on two committees of the National Research Council: the Committee to Review Research Proposals from Former Soviet Biological Weapons In- stitutes and the Committee on Future Contributions of the Biosciences to Public Health, Agriculture, Basic Research, Counterterrorism, and Non- Proliferation Activities in Russia. Michael Oldstone, M.D., is a professor in the Department of Neurophar- macology at The Scripps Research Institute, where he heads the virology division. His research interfaces with virology and immunology. He has authored numerous publications, was editor for the journal of Virology, and is currently editor of Virology and consulting editor for the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Immunity, and Journal of Experimental Medicine. He is the author of the book Viruses, Plagues, and History. He has received

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APPENDIX B 245 numerous awards, including the T. Allyn Taylor International Prize in Medi- cine for his work in virus-host interactions, the Cotzias Award for research excellence in nervous system disease, the Rous-Whipple Award for research excellence in investigative pathology and the Abraham Flexner Award for contributions in biomedical research. He is a member of several profes- sional societies and has been a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies since 1996. He has been a scientific councilor to the Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and a consultant to the World Health Organization for the eradication of poliomyelitis and measles virus infections. His interest is primarily in the study of persistent virus infection; he has also studied the pathogenesis of . scraple c .lsease. David A. Relman, M.D., is associate professor of medicine and associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University. He is also chief of Infectious Diseases at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. His research interests concern microbial pathogen discovery and human microbial ecology and have generated more than 100 publica- tions. Among the many awards and honors he has received are the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Disease from the Ellison Medical Foun- dation and the Squibb Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Relman is a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Insti- tutes of Health, and the Board of Directors of the Infectious Diseases Soci- ety of America. He currently serves on the National Academies' Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Agents. Raymond P. Roos, M.D., is Marjorie and Robert E. Straus Professor and chairman of the Department of Neurology at the University of Chicago. His main clinical and research interests are neurodegenerative disease (amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis, prion disease); inflammatory nervous system infec- tions (multiple sclerosis, viral infections); and neuropathy. A member of the Food and Drug Administration's Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopa- thies Advisory Committee from 1996 to 2001, Dr. Roos has published more than 200 papers in the fields of neurology and virology. David M. Taylor, Ph.D., M.B.E., recently retired from his position as prin- cipal research scientist in the Neuropathogenesis Unit of the Institute for Animal Health in Edinburgh. He worked extensively on the problem of inactivating the infectious agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopa- thies (TSEs) and published numerous research papers and book chapters on the subject. The British monarchy named him a Member of the Order of the

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246 ADVANCING PRION SCIENCE British Empire (MBE) in 1999 for his contribution to TSE research. He also is a member of the United Kingdom Department of Health Creutzfelcit- Takob Disease Incidents Panel, the United Kingdom Toint Advisory Com- mittee on Dangerous Pathogens/Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee, and the European Commission Working Group on Safe Dis- posal and Recycling Methods for Animal By-Proclucts Not Intencleci for Human Consumption. Reed B. Wickner, M.D., is chief of the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. He has focused on nonchromo- somal genetic elements of Saccharomyces. His studies of yeast cisRNA vi- ruses have revealed many of their interactions with the host translation and posttranslation modification systems. In 1994 Dr. Wickner cliscovereci that yeast harbors two prions (infectious proteins), called fURE3] and tPSI]. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Robert G. Will, M.D., established the National Creutzfelcit-Takob Disease Surveillance Unit at Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh in May 1990 and served as the unit's director until 2000. He will direct the unit once every 3 years and will continue to serve as its consultant neurolo- gist in the interim. He also holds a personal chair in clinical neurology in the department of clinical neurosciences at the university. Dr. Will has been intimately involveci with the identification of the clinical and epiclemiologi- cal features of variant Creutzfelcit-Takob disease (vCTD). He was the leaci author of both the landmark 1996 Lancet paper reporting the emergence of vCTD and of the 2000 Annals of Neurology paper proposing diagnostic criteria for vCTD. In aciclition, he coauthored the first report to demonstrate that the infectious agent of maci cow disease could cause vCTD-like symp- toms in mice. In recognition of his scientific and medical contributions, the British monarchy awarcleci him the title of Commander of the British Em- pire (CBE) in 2000. At present, Dr. Will advises and collaborates with his international counterparts on CTD surveillance, blooci transfusion risk, and . . . transmission stuc lest Liaison from the Board of the Medical Follow-up Agency Linda D. Cowan, Ph.D., is George Lynn Cross Research Professor, Epicle- miology, in the department of biostatistics and epidemiology at the Univer- sity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. The recipient of several teaching awards, she conclucts epiclemiological research on neurological disease in infants and children, and she is the coinvestigator of a stucly begun in 1987 into the mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for carcliovascular disease in

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APPENDIX B 247 three American Indian populations. Dr. Cowan is an elected member of the American Epidemiological Society. At present, she serves on the Institute of Medicine's Board of the Medical Follow-up Agency and Advisory Pane! for the Study of Long-Term Health Effects of Participation in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). She is also a member of the National Research Council's Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Per- chlorate Ingestion. Previously, she was a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine, the Vaccine Safety Forum, and the Committee to Review the Ad- verse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. CONSULTANTS TO THE COMMITTEE Adriano Aguzzi, M.D., Ph.D., is professor and associate dean for research at the University of Zurich Medical School. His research career has focused entirely on priors, exploring how they damage brain cells, why they accu- mulate in follicular dendritic cells, and how they reach the brain after enter- ing the body from peripheral sites. The president of the Swiss Society of Neuropathology, Dr. Aguzzi also has developed and patented diagnostics and therapeutics for TSEs. He served as director of the Swiss National Ref- erence Center for Prion Diseases from 1995 until 1997, the year he became a member of the United Kingdom's Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee. He sits on the editorial boards of numerous journals, including Brain Pathology, for which he was deputy editor from 1994 to 1995. Among other honors, he won the 2001 Interscience Conference on Antimi- crobial Agents and Chemotherapy Award from the American Society for Microbiology. David M. Asher, M.D., is chief and supervisory medical officer of the Labo- ratory of Bacterial, Parasitic and Unconventional Agents in the Division of Emerging and Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Previously he was a senior research investigator at the Labo- ratory of Central Nervous System Studies in the National Institute of Neu- rological and Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health. Dr. Asher has led and currently leads several national and international efforts to pro- tect the public and animals from TSEs, including the World Health Organization's Biologicals Programme Consultation on TSE Standards and Diagnostics, the Food and Drug Administration's Conference on TSE Diag- nostic Tests, and the Food and Drug Administration's Inter-Center TSE Decontamination Working Group. In November 2002, he became a con- sultant and rapporteur to the World Health Organization Consultation on Vaccines, Blood Products and Tissue in relation to TSEs. He recently devel- oped a technique now used by the Food and Drug Administration to evalu-

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248 ADVANCING PRION SCIENCE ate decontamination regimens for freeing glass, metal, and plastic surfaces of TSE agents. He also has published more than 175 articles, abstracts, and book chapters. Pieriuigi Gambetti, M.D., founded and directs the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve University in Cleve- land. He also is a professor and the director of the division of neuropathol- ogy at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland. In 1990, he chaired the prion study group of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Viruses. He now serves on the executive committee of the World Health Organization and the Food and Drug Administration's advisory committee for TSEs. Dr. Gambetti, who has devoted much of his research during the past 4 decades to Alzheimer's disease, also codirects the Alzheimer Disease Research Center of Cleveland. He has authored or coauthored more than 200 papers and 60 books, book chapters, and invited articles. David A. Harris, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor in the department of cell biol- ogy and physiology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. There he is investigating the conversion of normal prions into their malignant form, the intracellular targeting and processing of priors, and their interactions with other proteins. He is also studying how prions cause the clinical and neuropathological abnormalities associated with disease. Among other honors, Dr. Harris has won two awards from the National Institutes of Health: the Individual National Research Service Award in 1983 and the Clinical Investigator Development Award in 1986. He now serves on the editorial board of the journal of Biological Chemistry. Stanley B. Prusiner, M.D., is a professor of neurology and the founding director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. Discovering prions earned him the 1997 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. His laboratory currently aims to elucidate the molecular events responsible for the metamorphosis of cellular PrP into PrPSc, to identify the molecule or molecules that mediate this change, and to uncover the mechanism of prion diversity. Dr. Prusiner has authored or coauthored 10 books and more than 300 journal articles and has won more than 70 awards and honors. Among other activities, he consults for the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Re- search and chairs the executive committee of the Agnes Ginges Center for Neurogenetics at Hadassah Medical School and Hospital in Jerusalem. He was a member of the Food and Drug Administration's Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee from 1997 to 2001. In

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APPENDIX B 249 the commercial sphere, he holds 24 prior-related patents, as well as direc- torships on the boards of KBC Pharma Inc. and InPro Biotechnology LLC. An elected member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Prusiner sits on the editorial board of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Elizabeth S. Williams, D.V.M., Ph.D., is a professor in the department of veterinary science at University of Wyoming and a veterinary pathologist at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory. She characterized chronic wast- ing disease during her graduate studies in 1980 and has made it a focus of her professional work. Her other research interests include diseases of en- dangered species, such as the black-footed ferret, and the relationship be- tween wildlife and domestic animal diseases. The Wildlife Disease Associa- tion honored her with its Distinguished Service Award in 1996. She has authored or coauthored more than 90 papers and 16 book chapters and has given more than 40 invited presentations. She currently edits the Journal of Wildlife Diseases.