• ers—developed many terminologies;1 other efforts focus on integrating nursing terminologies into the Systemized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) Clinical Terms (CT) and Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC).

  • College of American Pathologists (CAP)—developed SNOMED (RT—reference terminology); developed SNOMED CT through a collaboration with the National Health Service of the United Kingdom.

  • Regenstrief Institute—developed LOINC.

  • American Medical Association (AMA)—developed Current Procedural Terminology (CPT).

  • American Psychiatric Association (APA)—developed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

  • Emergency Care Research Institute (ECRI)—developed the Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS).

  • National Cancer Institute (NCI)—developed genetics-related terminologies

  1. Standards Development Organizations

    • Health Level Seven (HL7)—registers existing controlled terminologies and defines required terminologies for which no controlled terminologies exist.

    • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)—developed medical device terminologies.

  1. Other Private Entities

    • Medicomp Systems Incorporated—developed Medcin®, which is not a standard terminology but a vendor-developed set of coordinated terms used locally by some health care organizations.

  1. Standardized Mappings of Terminologies

    • National Library of Medicine (NLM)—developed the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), which can store and cross-reference existing terminologies, and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

1  

Nursing terminologies include: HHCC—Home Health Care Classification; ICNP—International Classification of Nursing Practice; NANDA—North American Nursing Diagnosis Association classification; NIC—Nursing Intervention Classifications; NOC—Nursing Outcomes Classifications; Omaha System; PCDS—Patient Care Data Set; and PNDS—Perioperative Nursing Data Set.

submitted by the manufacturer, reviewed by the FDA for redundancy or overlap, and added to the set of codes. However, this procedure has been associated with several issues. One such issue is that drug codes for pharmaceuticals that are considered obsolete are often reused by the manufacturer, a practice that contributes to problems in tracking medication usage and potential drug interactions or contraindications. A second issue is the lack



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