TABLE C–1a Selected Examples of Federal Patient Safety/Health Care Reporting and Surveillance Systems

Federal Agency


Name of System

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systema

Type of System


History of reporting/surveillance system

The NNIS system is a cooperative effort that began in 1970 between CDC and participating hospitals. The system is used to describe the epidemiology of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance trends.

Voluntary or mandatory


Reportable events/events monitored

The NNIS system has two components: (1) nosocomial infections and (2) antimicrobial use and resistance (AUR).

In two situations, an infection is considered nosocomial: (1) infection that is acquired in the hospital but does not become evident until after hospital discharge and (2) infection in a neonate that results from passing through the birth canal.

There are two special situations when an infection is NOT considered nosocomial: (1) infection associated with a complication or extension of infection already present on admission, unless a change in pathogen or symptoms strongly suggests the acquisition of a new infection, and (2) in an infant an infection known or proved to have been acquired transplacentally and evident 48 hours or less after birth.

aInformation on the NNIS system has been obtained from the following sources: Gaynes (1998), Gaynes and Horan (1999), Gaynes and Solomon (1996), Horan and Emori (1998), Richards et al. (2001), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002).

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