17. Gaba D. 2000. Anesthesiology as a model for patient safety in health care. British Medical Journal 320:785–788.

18. Lagasse R. 2002. Anesthesia safety: Model or myth? A review of the published literature and analysis of current original data. Anesthesiology 97(6):1609–1617.

19. Cooper J, Gaba D. 2002. No myth: Anesthesia is a model for addressing patient safety. Anesthesia 97(6):1335–1337.

20. Brennan T. 2002. Physicians’ professional responsibility to improve the quality of care. Academic Medicine 77:973–980.

21. Croteau R, Schyve P. 2000. Proactively error proofing health care processes. In: Spath P. editor. Error Reduction in Health Care. New York: Jossey Bass. P. 184.

22. Chang A. 2003. Joint Commission Benchmark 5(2).

23. Marguerez G, Erbault E, Terra JL, Maisonneuve H, Matillon Y. 2001. Evaluation of 60 continuous quality improvement projects in French hospitals. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 13(2):89–97.

24. Solberg L, et al. 2000. Failure of a continuous quality improvement intervention to increase the delivery of preventive services: A randomized trial. Effective Clinical Practice May/June:105–115.

25. Contributed by Mary Ivins, Morrison Management Specialists.

26. Gran, B.A., Winther, R. and Johnsen, O.A. Security Assessment of Safety Critical Systems Using HAZOPs, in Proc. of Safecomp 2001, Budapest, Hungary, September 26-28, 2001. Stolen K. A Framework for Risk Analysis of Security Critical Systems. In supplement of the 2001 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks. Gothenburg, Sweden, July 2-4, 2001, P. D4-D11.

27. CORAS is a European Research and Development project funded by the 5th Framework Program on Information Society Technologies by the European Commission. The project began in 2001 and will last through 2003. Eleven partners are involved: five from Norway, three from Greece, two from England, and one from Germany. One Norwegian participant is the National Centre for Telemedicine (NST), whose mission is to contribute to making effective health services available to all. Formerly the Norwegian Centre for Telemedicine, NST was designated the first World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Telemedicine in July 2002.

28. Personal communication, e-mail from Eva Skipenes, Security Adviser, Norwegian Centre for Telemedicine, to Luke Petosa, Director, ECRI’s Center for Healthcare Environmental Management. Sent March 17, 2003.

29. Paté-Cornell E. 1999. Medical application of engineering risk analysis and anesthesia patient risk illustration. American Journal of Therapeutics 6(5):245–255.

30. Van Kooy M, Edell L, Scheckner HM. 2002. Use of Six Sigma to Improve the Safety and Efficacy of Acute Anticoagulation with Heparin. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management 9(8): 445–453.

31. Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative. 2001. PHRA Scorecard 2001–2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.prhi.org/publications/member_pubs.htm [accessed April 25, 2003].

32. Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative. 2002. On the Learning Line: Case Studies from the Perfecting Patient Care Learning Lines in Pittsburgh-Area Hospitals. [Online]. Available: http://www.prhi.org/pdfs/Learning_Line_Booklet.pdf [accessed April 25, 2003].

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement