Causal analysis, 293, 295–301, 333

Eindhoven classification model, medical version, 297, 300–301

generic reference model diagram, 297

Causal continuum assumption, 230–231, 327

Cause-and-effect diagram of preventable adverse drug events, 182

CDA. See Clinical Document Architecture

CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDSS. See Clinical Decision Support System

CEN. See Comité Européean Normalisation

Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (CQuIPS), 32, 335

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 73, 103, 335

example of federal patient safety/ health care reporting and surveillance systems, 346–357

Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs), 110

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS), 69, 111, 335

CERTs. See Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics

CHAI. See Child Health Accountability Initiative

Chart review, 328

to detect adverse drug events, 205–206

CHF. See Congestive heart failure

CHI. See Consolidated Health Informatics

Child Health Accountability Initiative (CHAI), overview of, 312–313

Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 335

CHIP. See Children’s Health Insurance Program

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 335

Clinical data

interchange standards, 16, 49

repository, 328

Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS), 58, 70, 78

Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), 66, 136, 328, 335

Clinical domains, 328

for patient safety, 427–429

Clinical event monitors, 328

and data repositories, 64–65

Clinical guideline representation model, 158–160

Clinical information systems, 72, 328, 335

Clinical performance data, 252–254

Clinical templates, 136–137

Clinical terminologies, 16–17, 50

Close calls, 328

CMS. See Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Cochrane Collaboration, 110, 161

Coding, 328

Comité Européean Normalisation (CEN), 335

Communication technologies, 69–71

Internet and private networks, 71

Comprehensive patient safety programs, 169–245

adverse event analysis, 171, 200–225

applied research agenda, 169–170, 192–197

case studies, 184–192

culture of safety, 174–177

establishment of, 169–171

in health care settings, 173–199

model for introducing safer care, 178–184

near-miss analysis, 171–172, 226–245

patient safety reporting systems and applications, 250–278

recommendations, 169–170

standardized reporting, 279–316

streamlining patient safety reporting, 247–249

Computer-based patient record system (CPRS), 35–36

Computerized patient records (CPRs), 79

Computerized physician order entry (CPOE), 328–329, 335

validation modules for prescribing medication, 214



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