Statistics, 2001). As shown in Figure 2-1, there are significant areas of overlap among these three dimensions in terms of functionality and applications.
With the NHII, information systems will be able to provide the right information, at the right time, and to the right individuals, enabling safe care and supporting robust safety reporting systems for cases in which adverse events and near misses do occur. The NHII also will yield many other benefits in terms of new opportunities for care access, efficiency, and effectiveness; public health; homeland security; and clinical and health services research. For example, electronic health records (EHRs), in conjunction with secure data exchange, may allow for early detection of and rapid response to infectious diseases. The NHII will also facilitate the organization and execution of large-scale inoculation programs, as well as the dissemination to clinicians and patients of up-to-date information and practice guidelines on the presentation and treatment of morbidity due to chemical and biological threats.
Standards-based information systems built on the foundation of the NHII will permit cross-organizational data sharing. Several promising