Figure 3

The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain stretches from the Big Island of Hawaii to Kure Atoll and then continues underwater as a series of seamounts. The islands currently above water are shown in solid black, with the populated chain of major islands located between Hawaii and Kauai at the bottom right. The lines that encircle the islands and seamounts indicate the 1-kilometer and 2-kilometer depth contours. (Map adapted from David A. Clague and G. Brent Dalrymple, “The Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain, Part I. Geologic Evolution,” in R.W. Decker, T.L. Wright, and P.H. Stauffer, eds., Volcanism in Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350, 1987.)

Figure 4

In 1963 J. Tuzo Wilson proposed that the Hawaiian islands formed when the crust of the Pacific Ocean floor moved over a source of heat arising from within the earth. (Diagram adapted from J. Tuzo Wilson, “A Possible Origin of the Hawaiian Islands,” Canadian Journal of Physics 41:863-870, 1962.)

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