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~ ndex A Administration methods/venues, 3, 44, 48, 162 see also Questionnaires, surveys computer-assisted, 15, 145 in-person interviews, 4, 14, 15, 47 Internet, 44, 55, 134-135 mail, 50, 53-54, 55, 57, 58-59 open-ended items, 14, 47, 49, 62, 163 school-based surveys, 3, 45, 46, 48 self-completed questionnaires, 46-47, 48, 162 telephone, 15, 44, 45, 47, 123-124, 134, 135, 162 Adolescent development perspectives, 1, 19, 24, 31-32 Youth Attitude Tracking Studies (YATS), 11,41-43,45 Advertising, 68-90, 112-126, 163-164 see also Mass media age factors, 38, 119 attitudes, beliefs, and intentions, general, 4-5, 68, 69, 73-89, 163-164 behavior, 18-19, 68, 77-80, 84 committee recommendations, 4-6, 35-49, 125-126, 163-164, 166 committee study at hand, methodology, 1-3, 9, 10 communication theory, 37-39 185 content, 4, 5, 6, 65, 75-76, 78-82, 88, 109- 110, 120, 121-123, 146, 163-164, 166 language factors, 4, 78-79, 80 costs/expenditures, 4, 73-75, 83-85, 88- 89, 92-93, 95, 100-107, 112, 113-126 decision making, 79-81, 83 econometric data/methods, 2, 90, 93-111 (passim), 113-118, 119-120 employment levels and, 81, 87-88, 113 experimental and quasi-experimental approaches, 5, 6, 85-86, 90, 119-120 focus groups, 4, 82 gender, 38 generative and experimental approaches, 2, 4, 12, 79-80 historical perspectives, 4, 73-74, 88-89, 112, 118, 119, 120, 123-124, 125 influencers, 76-77, 85, 87, 88, 116, 118- 119, 123-125 (passim), 128-130 (passim), 134-136 (passim), 162, 167 Internet, 12, 66, 86 interviews, 4, 79, 82 . . . joint service econometric analysis, 6, 96-97, 100- 104, 113, 146, 167-168 effort/expenditures, 74, 112-113, 120- 126 language factors, 4, 78-79, 80 mailings, 120 market research, 4, 5, 12

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186 optimal levels, 2, 5-6, 12-13, 90-126 (passim) outcome assessments, 68, 78, 83 patriotism, 4, 78-79, 81, 88, 122 personnel qualifications, 93-95 propensity to enlist, 4, 6, 11-12, 68-69, 73- 89 (passim), 112, 122, 124-125, 163- 164 research framework, 2, 3, 4-6, 9, 10, 20 research recommendations, 4-6, 35-49, 125-126, 163-164, 166 . r~ servlce-specl~lc econometric analysis, 4, 13, 94-108, 113 effort/expenditures, 74, 112-113, 120- 126, 146, 167-168 themes, 76, 80 surveys of impact, 41, 43, 45, 64, 66-67 target audiences, 1, 4, 9, 75-77, 79, 80, 85- 86, 120, 123 theory, 18-19, 33-39 timing, 2, 5-6, 12, 93-94, 113-119, 167-168 Youth Attitude Tracking Studies (YATS), strategies based on, 70-73 (passim), 78,79,85,88 Age factors, 25 see also Adolescent development perspectives; High school students adults, 42, 43, 46 advertising, 38, 119; see also Influencers survey target population sampling, 4, 43, 44, 46, 162 Armed Forces Qualification Test, 130 Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth, 1, 9,19 Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions, 2, 159, 161-162 see also Decision making; Influencers; Patriotism; Propensity to enlist; Youth Attitude Tracking Studies; Youth Poll advertising, 4-5, 68, 69, 73-89, 163-164 communication theory, 38 economic theory and, 28, 29, 30 emotions, 25, 32-33 gender factors, 35, 70 mathematical model, 22, 29 monitoring, 2, 11, 40-67, 161 outcome assessments, 2, 3-4, 15, 16, 21- 22, 28, 30, 68, 70 recruiters, 29, 155-156 research framework, 2, 3, 14, 16, 20 INDEX self-concept, 31-32, 34, 121 self-efficacy, 20, 21, 24, 28, 33, 34, 41, 43, 61 surveys, 34, 11, 41-43, 48, 60, 61-64, 69- 73, 77-78 administration methods, respondent's reaction to, 47, 4849, 52, 163 school administrators reaction to, 52, 56 theory, general, 18, 20-25, 28, 33, 34, 35- 36,41 B Behavioral factors see also Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions; Propensity to enlist; Theoretical approaches advertising, 18-19, 68, 77-80, 84 communication theory and, 39 economic theory and, 28, 30 research framework, 2, 3, 15, 16, 20, 161- 162 survey content, 61-62 theory, general, 18-25 Beliefs, see Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions Bonuses, incentives, 6, 7, 13, 29, 99, 127, 128, 129, 143 C Cohort studies, 4, 49, 53-58, 65, 162 see also Youth Attitude Tracking Studies; Youth Poll Monitoring the Future, 46, 47, 50 panel surveys, 48, 49, 50-51, 56, 57, 58, 91, 92, 110, 122 College education, 81 distance learning, eArmyU, 145 economic decision-making theory, 26 enlistment incentives, 6, 7, 13, 78-79, 127, 128, 129, 138, 143-144 enrollments, 1, 9, 13, 68, 88 officer training programs, 26, 71 surveys of propensity to enlist, 46 Communication theory, 37-39 see also Content analysis; Language factors Computers and computer science see also Internet incentives, 35-36, 44, 53, 66, 134-135, 145 surveys, computer-assisted, 15, 145

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INDEX Content analysis advertising, 4, 5, 6, 65, 75-76, 78-82, 88, 109-110, 120, 121-123, 146, 163-164, 166 open-ended survey questions, 14, 47, 49, 62, 163 surveys questions, general, 44, 59-67, 163 Costs and cost-benefit analysis see also Econometric methods advertising, costs and expenditures, 4, 73-75, 83-85, 88-89, 92-93, 95, 100- 107, 112, 113-126 emotional factors vs. 31-32 incentives, optimization, 2, 5, 6-7, 13, 127-145, 168-169 recruiter, 13, 106-107 recruiting, general, 5, 105-107 surveys, 42, 49, 52-53, 58-59, 134 Cultural factors, see also Demographic and cultural factors D Decision making, 18 see also Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions; Propensity to enlist advertising content, 79-81, 83 economic theory, 18, 25-26 individual recruitment prospects, theory 10,11,14,18,21-33,34 irrational, 32-33 recruiting managers, 7 recruitment policies, 2, 4 Defense Marketing Research program, 11 Defense Science Board Task Force on Human Resources Strategy, 122 Demographic and cultural factors, 20, 25, 29 see also Age factors; Gender factors; Social factors ethnicity, 37, 54-55 incentives, 136 recruiter office locations, 154 recruiters, 155 survey design, 53-55 (passim), 136 Distal factors, 20, 24-25, 30-31 see also Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions; Demographic and cultural factors; Emotional factors; Mass media; Patriotism behavioral theory, 24-25, 36-37 187 economic theory, 29-31, 36 recruiter activity, 19, 29-30 survey content, 64-65 Duty to country, see Patriotism E Econometric methods, 16 see also Costs and cost-benefit analysis advertising, 2, 5-6, 90-111 (passim), 113- 118, 119-120 committee recommendations, 5-6, 16, 164-166 experimental, 90 historical perspectives, 92, 96-104, 136 incentives, 110, 111, 133, 136-137, 139, 140, 142, 144-145, 169 personnel qualifications, 91-92, 106-107 recruiters, 91-93, 95-110 (passim), 146 recruiting, general, 2, 5-6, 90-111, 164-166 service specific, 6, 13, 92-93, 94-108, 111, 113 Economic factors, 36-37 see also College education; Costs and best-benefit analysis; Employment and unemployment; Incentives; Wages and salaries external influences on enlistment goals, 12-13, 113-115, 147 individual decision-making, theory, 18, 25-31 propensity to enlist, 25-31, 36-37, 71, 84- 85, 87-88, 113-115, 136 "satisficing", 27, 28 survey funding, 45 utility theory, 25-29, 97-99 Educational attainment college enrollments, 1, 9 GED, 129, 130, 143-144 recruitment targets, 9 survey questions, literacy, 47 Educational benefit incentives, 6, 7, 13, 78- 79, 143-144 distance learning, eArmyU, 145 GED, 129, 130, 143-144 job training, 8, 128-129, 132, 141, 151 Emotional factors, 25, 32-33 see also Patriotism Employment and unemployment, 81, 87- 88, 94, 147 see also Wages and salaries

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188 advertising effort and, 81, 87-88, 113 individual decision theory, 26 job training, 8, 128-129, 132, 141, 151 macroeconomic factors, decision theory, 18,30 recruiters, selection of, 7, 146, 148-151, 169, 170 Ethnicity, see Racial/ethnic groups Experimental and quasi-experimental approaches, 15-16, 17, 159 advertising planning, 5, 6, 85-86, 90, 119- 120 econometric approaches, 90 incentives, optimum, 2, 7, 15-16, 113, 137-139, 141, 143-144, 145, 169 recruiter training, 153 survey design, 4344 time-series designs, 44, 45, 91, 107-108 F Family influences advertising to affect, 116 military surveys, attitude toward, 49 propensity to enlist, 21, 29, 76-77 Females, see Gender factors Focus groups, 14 advertising design, 4, 82 incentives, optimal, 2, 7, 133, 134, 141, 143, 145, 167 recruiter selection, 149 Funding, surveys, 45 G Gender factors, 35 advertising, 38 attitudes, 35, 70 propensity to enlist, 69-70, 71, 72 survey content development, 64 General Accounting Office, 149 Generative techniques advertising research, 2, 4, 12, 79-80 H High school students, 23, 42 see also School-based surveys advertising, 69 INDEX propensity to enlist, 69 surveys, general, 46, 47, 49-50, 51-58, 162 Historical perspectives, 1, 9 see also Longitudinal studies advertising expenditures/cost- effectiveness, 4, 73-74, 88-89, 112, 118, 119, 120, 123-124, 125 econometric studies, 92, 96-104, 136 incentives, 13, 136, 141-142 propensity to enlist, 1, 9, 12, 13, 68, 69- 72, 77-78, 87-88 recruitment goals/enlistment, 1, 9, 12, 68, 84-85, 91, 112, 147 survey scheduling, 51 Incentives, 5, 16, 18, 36, 41, 89, 110, 111, 129-146 bonuses, 6, 7, 13, 29, 99, 127, 128, 129, 143 data needs, 5-6 educational, 6, 7, 13, 78-79, 127, 128, 129, 138, 143-144 experimental and quasi-experimental approaches, 2, 7, 15-16, 113, 137- 139, 141, 143-144, 145, 169 focus groups, 2, 7, 133, 134, 141, 143, 145, 167 historical perspectives, 13, 136, 141-142 influencers and, 135, 141 job training, 8, 128-129, 132, 141, 151 laptop computers, 35-36, 44, 53, 66, 134- 135, 145 optimal types, 2, 5, 6-7, 13, 127-145, 168- 169 recruiters, 5, 7, 108, 110, 144, 146, 147, 155-156, 166, 170 reserve forces, 5-6, 16, 164-166 timing, 130, 131-132, 136, 138, 139, 142(n.3) wages, military, 128 Youth Attitude Tracking Studies, evaluation via, 135, 141-142 influencers, 76-77 see also Family influences; Peer influences advertising, 76-77, 85, 87, 88, 116, 118- 119, 123-125 (passim), 128-130 (passim), 134-136 (passim), 162, 167 incentives, 135, 141 surveys, 45, 65, 66, 67, 76-77, 135, 163

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INDEX Intelligence, recruitment standards, 9 Intentions, see Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions; Propensity to enlist Internet advertising, 12, 66, 86 distance learning, eArmyU, 145 survey administration, 44, 55, 134-135 Interviews advertising research, 4, 79, 82 focus groups, 14 in-person, 4, 14, 15, 47 telephone, 15, 44, 45, 47, 123-124, 134- 135, 162 Job training, 8, 128-129, 132, 141, 151 recruiters, 7-8, 151-154, 169, 170-171 Joint service actions, 2 advertising econometric analysis, 6, 96-97, 100- 104, 113, 146, 167-168 effort/expenditures, 74, 112-113, 120- 126 timing, 2, 6, 13, 113-119, 167 propensity to enlist, 13, 112-113, 124-125 L Language factors see also Content analysis advertising, 4, 78-79, 80 survey questions, 59-67 literacy, 47 Longitudinal studies see also Cohort studies; Youth Attitude Tracking Studies; Youth Poll enlistment dynamics, 36 Monitoring the Future, 46 propensity to enlist, 40, 41-43 quasi-experimental design, 44 M Magazines, see Newspapers and magazines Mailings advertising, 120 surveys, 50, 53-54, 55, 57, 58-59 Males, see Gender factors 189 Market research, 12 see also Econometric methods advertising planning, 4, 5, 12 in-market testing, 4, 82, 86-87, 164 Mass media see also Advertising; Internet advertising, general, 123 as behavioral influence, 25 mailings, 50, 53-54, 55, 57, 58-59, 120 monitoring, surveys of influence, 43, 66- 67 newspaper and magazine advertising, 86, 104, 121, 123, 124 radio advertising, 66, 104, 109, 123, 124 television advertising, 66, 82, 86, 104-105, 109, 120, 123 Mathematical models see also Econometric methods adolescent self-concept, 32 advertising cost-effectiveness /timing, 115-118 attitude, 22, 29 communication, 38 economic factors in individual decisions, 26-27, 28-29 normative support, 23-24 self-efficacy, 24 Media, see Internet; Mass media Minority groups, see Racial/ethnic groups Models, see Mathematical models; Theoretical approaches Monitoring, 34, 10-11, 40-67, 161-162 see also Cohort studies; Focus groups; Longitudinal studies; Research methodology; Surveys attitudes of youth, 2, 11, 40-67, 161 Monitoring the Future, 46, 47, 50, 52 N National Defense Authorization Act, 148 Newspapers and magazines, 86, 104, 109, 121, 123, 124 o On-line approaches, see Internet Open-ended items, surveys, 14, 47, 49, 62, 163

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190 Outcome assessments, 2, 10, 15, 16, 35-36 see also Monitoring; Performance standards; Surveys advertising, 68, 78, 83 attitudes and intentions, 2, 34, 15, 16, 21-22, 28, 30, 68, 70 individual, outcome expectations, 21, 28, 30 nonspecific, 2 research framework, 2, 3, 15, 16, 20, 28, 30 p Panel surveys, 48, 49, 50-51, 56, 57, 58, 91, 92,110,122 Partnership for Youth Success, 129 Patriotism advertising, 4, 78-79, 81, 88, 122 theory of behavior, 24-25 Peer influences, 22-23, 29, 76-77 Performance standards see also Outcome assessments recruiter productivity, 5, 29, 34, 165, 169- 171 recruiters, general, 2, 7-8, 13, 146-158 (passim), 169-171 Pilot studies, see Experimental and quasi- experimental approaches Postal approaches, see Mailings Print media, see Mailings; Newspapers and magazines Propensity to enlist, 34, 159, 161-162 see also Patriotism advertising planning, 4, 6, 11-12, 68-69, 73-89 (passim), 112, 122, 124-125, 163-164 economic factors, 25-31, 36-37, 71, 84-85, 87-88, 113-115, 136 family influences, 21, 29, 76-77 gender factors, 69-70, 71, 72 historical perspectives, 1, 9, 12, 13, 68, 69-72, 77-78, 87-88 incentives, 2, 6, 16, 133, 134-136, 142(n.3) intervention design, general, 33, 34 joint service recruiting, 13, 112-113, 124- 125 longitudinal studies, general, 40, 4143 qualifications vs. 19 recruiters and, 19, 66-67, 151 reserve forces, 64 INDEX service specific recruiting, 112-113 surveys, 3, 11, 40-45, 59-67, 69-73, 77-78, 87, 88, 135-136, 162 theory, general, 19-32 Psychological factors, see Attitudes, beliefs, and intentions; Social factors Q Qualifications and qualification requirements, 5-6, 9 see also Educational attainment; Self- efficacy advertising effectiveness, 93-95 econometric analysis, 91-92, 106-107 incentives based on, 129-130, 138, 143-144 recruiter quotas, 91-92 recruiter selection, 7, 146, 148-151 specialists and speciality training, 128, 130-133 (passim), 138, 143, 148, 156 theory of behavior, 19-20, 34 Quality of Life Panel, 122 Quasi-experimental approaches, see Experimental and quasi- experimental approaches Questionnaires, surveys, 3, 11, 44, 59-67, 162-163 see also Content analysis open-ended items, 14, 47, 49, 62, 163 self-completed, 46-47, 48, 162 Youth Attitude Tracking Studies, 11, 47 Quotas, recruitment, 5, 6, 7, 29, 91-93 (passim), 111, 147, 154-155, 171 R Racial/ethnic groups, 37, 54-55 Radio advertising, 66, 104, 109, 123, 124 Recruiters, 13, 34, 146-158, 169-171 attitudes of, 29, 155-156 committee recommendations, 7-8, 108- 109, 164-165, 169-171 cost factors, 5, 106-107 econometric analysis, 91-93, 95-110 (passim), 146 economic theory of decision making, 29- 30 incentives for, 5, 7, 108, 110, 144, 146, 147, 155-156, 166, 170 office locations, 154

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INDEX productivity, 5, 29, 34, 165, 169-171 propensity to enlist and, 19, 66-67, 151 quotas, 5, 6, 7, 29, 91-93 (passim), 111, 147, 154-155, 171 selection of, 7, 146, 148-151, 169, 170 standards, general, 2, 13 surveys of impact, 66-67 training of, 7-8, 151-154, 169, 170-171 Recruiting strategies, general, 29 see also Advertising; Incentives; Quotas; Recruiters committee recommendations, 4-6, 164-166 cost-effectiveness, 5, 105-107 econometric analysis, 2, 5-6, 90-111, 164- 166 historical perspectives, 1-2, 9 office locations, 154 optimal levels, 5-6, 12, 112, 164-166 propensity to enlist and, 19 research framework, 2, 9, 10, 14-17, 20, 29-30, 146 scale of, 5, 16, 47, 82, 85, 86-87, 104, 110, 120-126 (passim), 168 theory, decision making, 18-19, 33-39 Regression analysis, 92, 104, 133, 137, 142, 144 see also Econometric methods Research methodology, general, 10 see also Econometric methods; Experimental and quasi- experimental approaches; Focus groups; Generative techniques; Incentives; Market research; Mathematical models; Monitoring; Performance standards; Pilot studies; Surveys; Theoretical approaches advertising, 3-6 (passim), 10, 11-12, 20 attitudes, 2, 3, 14, 16, 20 behavioral factors, 2, 3, 15, 16, 20, 161- 162 committee study at hand, 1-3, 9-10, 14-17 incentives, 127, 130, 133-139 recruiters and recruiter programs, 146- 158 Research recommendations, 4-8, 14-17, 159- 171 advertising, 4-6, 35-49, 125-126, 163-164, 166 econometric methods, 5-6, 16, 164-166 recruiters, 7-8 191 Reserve forces active-duty recruiting, competition with, 5, 13, 108-109, 166 active-duty vs reserve commitments, 13 college reserve officer training, 26, 71 economic decision-making theory, 26 incentives, 7, 129-133 (passim), 138, 143 propensity to serve, surveys, 64 Retention of enlisters, 109, 130, 131, 133, 136, 139, 142, 145 S Sampling, 44, 4546, 51-52, 53-58, 79, 162 School-based surveys, 3, 48, 51-59, 162 sampling, 4546, 52-55, 162 scheduling, 51-52, 55-56 Self-completed questionnaires, 4647, 48, 162 Self-concept, 31-32, 34, 121 Self-efficacy, 20, 21, 24, 28, 33, 34 surveys, 41, 43, 61 Service-specific actions, 2, 5-6 . .,- . see also specific services advertising, econometric analysis, 4, 13, 94-108, 113 advertising effort/expenditures, 74, 112- 113, 120-126, 146, 167-168 advertising themes, 76, 80 advertising timing, 2, 6, 113-120, 167 econometric analysis, 6, 92-93, 94-104, 111 economic decision-making theory, 26 incentives, 140, 143 job training incentives, 128-129 propensity to enlist, 112-113 recruiter performance management, 148 survey content, 63-64 Sex differences, see Gender factors Skills, see Qualifications and qualification requirements Social factors, 29, 36-37 see also Demographic and cultural factors; Family influences; Influencers; Patriotism family influences, 21, 29 influencers surveys, 45, 65, 66, 67, 76-77, 135, 163 normative influences, 21, 22-25, 28, 33, 34, 41, 43, 60-63 peer influence, 22-23, 29, 76-77

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192 surveys covering, 42, 43, 60-61 theory, 20, 21, 22-23, 25, 29, 31-32 Specialists and speciality training, 128, 130- 133 (passim), 138, 143, 148, 156 Surveys, 1, 3-4, 11, 41-67, 70, 162-163 see also Cohort studies; Questionnaires, surveys; Sampling; School-based surveys; Youth Attitude Tracking Studies; Youth Poll administration methods/venues, 3, 44, 48,162 adolescent, 11, 41-43 adult, 43 advertising planning/impact, 41, 43, 45, 64, 66-67 attitudes, 3-4, 11, 4143, 48, 60, 61-64, 69- 73, 77-78 college students, 46 committee recommendations, 4, 42, 45, 46, 47, 49-67, 162-163 confidentiality, 4849, 53 content analysis, 44, 59-67, 163 cost-effectiveness, 42, 49,52-53,58-59,134 demographic and cultural factors, general, 53-55 (passim), 136 funding, 45 high school students, 46, 47, 49-50, 51-58, 162; see also School-based surveys incentives, optimal, 2, 6, 16, 133, 134-136, 139, 141, 143-145, 169 influencers surveys, 45, 65, 66, 67, 76-77, 135, 163 language, 59-67; see also Content analysis longitudinal, 11, 41-42 mass media influence, surveys of, 43, 66- 67 panel surveys, 48, 49, 50-51, 56, 57, 58, 91, 92, 110, 122 propensity to enlist, 3, 11, 40-45, 59-67, 69-73, 77-78, 87, 88, 135-136, 162 recruiter impact, surveys of, 66-67 self-efficacy, 41, 43, 61 social factors, 42, 43, 60-61 sponsorship (DoD or shared), 48, 56 target population sampling, 4, 43, 44, 46, 162 timing periodicity, 11, 50-51, 55-59 (passim), 65,87,96-98,136,162 INDEX T Target populations, 159, 160 see also Demographic and cultural factors; Influencers; Sampling advertising, 1, 4, 9, 75-77, 79, 80, 85-86, 120, 123 incentives, 129-130 survey sampling, 4, 43, 44, 46, 162 Telephone surveys, 15, 44, 45, 47, 123-124, 134-135, 162 Television advertising, 66, 82, 86, 104-105, 109, 120, 123 Theoretical approaches, 18-39 see also Mathematical models; Research methodology adolescent development perspectives, 1, 19, 24, 31-32 advertising, 18-19, 33-39 attitudes, 18, 20-25, 28, 33, 34, 35-36, 41 behavioral, 18-25 committee recommendations, 39, 160 communication theory, 37-39 economic, 18, 25-31, 32-33, 37 qualifications, personnel, 19-20, 34 self-efficacy, 20, 21, 24, 28, 33, 34, 41 social factors, general, 20, 21, 22-23, 25, 29, 31-32 surveys based on, 42 Time and timing factors see also Longitudinal studies advertising, 2, 5-6, 12, 93-94, 113-119, 167-168 data needs, 5-6, 111 enlistment trends, 36, 111 incentives, 130, 131-132, 136, 138, 139, 142(n.3) job opportunities, sequential, 28 recruiter training, 151 reserve commitments, 7, 132 survey periodicity, 11, 50-51, 55-59 (passim), 65, 87, 96-98, 136, 162 survey scheduling during school year, 51-52, 55-56 television advertising, 109 U University enrollments, see College education

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INDEX W Wages and salaries, 36, 94 as incentive to enlist, 128 individual decision making, 18, 28, 30 World Wide Web, see Internet 193 hi' y Youth Attitude Tracking Studies (YATS), 11, 41-43, 45, 47, 63-64 advertising strategies based on, 70-73 (passim), 78, 79, 85, 88 incentives evaluation, 135,141-142 questionnaire form, 11, 47 Youth Poll, 71-73, 76, 78, 79

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