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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident REFERENCES Adams, W. H., Heotis, P. M., Scott, W. A. Medical Status of Marshallese Accidentally Exposed to 1954 BRAVO Fallout Radiation. January 1985-December 1987. Upton, NY: Brookhaven National Laboratory. BNL-52192. 1987. AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Radiation Disasters and Children. Policy Statement. Organizational Principles to Guide and Define the Child Health Care System and/or Improve the Health of Children. Committee on Environmental Health. Pediatrics, June 2003. APWU (American Postal Workers Union). Potassium Iodide: Informational Sheet. APWU, Safety and Health, Industrial Relations. 2002. Astbury, J., Horsley S., Gent, N. Evaluation of a Scheme for the Pre-Distribution of Stable Iodine (Potassium Iodate) the Civilian Population Residing Within the Immediate Countermeasures Zone of a Nuclear Submarine Construction Facility. J Public Health Med 21: 412-414. 1999. Baverstock, K., Egloff, B., Pinchera, A., Williams, D. Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 359: 21-22. 1992. Blum, M., Eisenbud, M. Reduction of Thyroid Irradiation from 131I by Potassium Iodide. JAMA 200:1036-40. 1967.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident BMU: Basic Recommendations for Emergency Preparedness in Areas Surrounding Nuclear Facilities. German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Preservation and Nuclear Safety, Bonn. 1999. Braverman, L. E., Ingbar, S. H. Changes in Thyroidal Function during Adaptation to Large Doses of Iodide. J Clin Invest 42:1216-1231. 1963. Cardis, E., Amoros, E., Kesminiene, A., Malakhova, I. V., Poliakov, S. M., Piliptsevitch, N. N., Demidchik, E. P., Astakhova, L. N., Ivanov, V. K., Konogorov, A. P., Parshkov, E.P., Tsyb, A. F. Observed and Predicted Thyroid Cancer Incidence Following the Chernobyl Accident. Evidence for factors influencing susceptibility to radiation induced thyroid cancer. In: Radiation and Cancer. Thomas, G., Karaoglou, A., Williams, E. D., Eds. World Scientific Publishing, pp. 395-405. 1999. Cate, S., Ruttenber, A. J., Conklin, A. W. Feasibility of an Epidemiologic Study of the Thyroid Neoplasia in Persons Exposed to Radionuclides from the Hanford Nuclear Facility between 1994 and 1956. Health Physics 59: 169. 1990. Clemen, Robert T. Making Hard Decisions: An Introduction to Decision Analysis. Second edition, Duxbury Press: Pacific Grove, CA. pp. 547-550 on Swing Weights. 1996. Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. (CRCPD). Resolution. May 6, 2002. Conklin, W. C. Memorandum from: W. Craig Conklin, Director Technological Services Division, Federal Emergency Management Agency. For: Regional Assistance Committee Chairs, Regions I-VII, IX, and X. Subject: Revision of “FEMA Guidance on the Use of Potassium Iodide by the General Public for Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.” 2002. Connecticut DPH (State of Connecticut Department of Public Health). Important Information on the Use of Potassium Iodide (KI) Tablets (available at the State of Connecticut Web site http://www.dph.state.ct.us/BCH/eeoh/ki/tablets.htm. 2003.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident Costa, A., Coltino, F., Ariano, M., Bacolla, A., Belleo, V., Chiecchio, A., Lorenzini, P. Comparison between Inhaled and Ingested Iodine Metabolism. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Science, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp 89-96. 1982. Crick, M. S., Linsley, M. S. An Assessment of the Radiological Impact of the Windscale Fire. Int J Radiat Biol 46, 479-506. 1984. Crick, M. J., Linsley, G. S. An Assessment of the Radiological Impact of the Windscale Reactor Fire, October 1957. NRPB Report 135. HMSO London: National Radiation Protection Board. 1982. Dai, G., Levy, O., Carrasco, N. Cloning and Characterization of the Thyroid Iodide Transporter. Nature 379:458-460. 1996. DOT (Department of Transportation). Emergency Response Guidebook. Research and Special Programs Administration. 2000. Dubrova, Y. E., Grant, G., Chumak, A. A., Stezhka, V. A., Karakasian, A. N. Elevated Minisatellite Mutation Rate in the Post-Chernobyl Families from Ukraine. Am J Hum Genet 71: 801-809. 2002. Edwards, W. Multiattribute Utility Measurement: Evaluating Desegregation Plans in a Highly Political Context. In Perloff, R., ed., Evaluator Interventions: Pros and Cons. (pp. 13-54). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. 1979. Edwards, W. Reflections on and Criticism of a Highly Political Multiattribute Utility Analysis. In Cobb, L. and Thrall, R.M., eds., Mathematical Frontiers of Behavioral Policy Sciences (pp. 157-168). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1980. Eng, H. K., Cardona, G. R., Fang, S. L., Previti, M., Alex, S., Carrasco, N., Chin, W. W., Braverman, L. E.: Escape from the Acute Wolff-Chaikoff Effect is Associated with a Decrease in Thyroid Sodium/Iodide Symporter mRNA and Protein. Endocrinology 140:3404-3410. 1999. Engell, A., Lamm, S. H. Goitrogens in the Environment. In Diseases of the Thyroid. Ed. Lewis E. Braverman. pp 307-328. Humana Press, 2003.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Federal Policy on Use of Potassium Iodide. Federal Register, 67(7):1355-1357. 2002. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Guidance for Developing State, Tribal, and Local Radiological Emergency Response Planning and Preparedness for Transportation Accidents. Report No. FEMA-REP-5 Rev. 1. Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1992. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Guidance for Federal Agencies and State and Local Governments: Potassium Iodide Shelf Life Extension. Draft Guidance. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food and Drug Evaluation Research. 2003a. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Home Preparation Procedure for Emergency Administration of Potassium Iodide Tablets to Infants and Children Using 130 milligram (mg) Tablets. FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Washington DC, May 6. 2003b. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Home Preparation Procedure for Emergency Administration of Potassium Iodide Tablets to Infants and Children Using 65 milligram (mg) Tablets. FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Washington DC, May 6. 2003c. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI). FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Washington DC, March 18. 2003d. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Guidance for Industry. KI in Radiation Emergencies – Questions and Answers. Procedural, Revision 1. FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Washington DC, December. 2002. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Guidance Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 2001a.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident FDA (Food and Drug Administration). FDA Talk Paper. FDA’s Guidance on Protection of Children and Adults against Thyroid Cancer in Case of Nuclear Accident. FDA, Office of Public Affairs, Washington DC, December 10. 2001b. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health. 1998. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid-Blocking Agent in a Radiation Emergency: Final Recommendations on Use. Federal Register 47:28158. 1982. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Population Dose and Health Impact of the Accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. HFX-1. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Radiological Health, May 10, 1979. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human and Animal Feeds and Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid-Blocking Agent in a Radiation Emergency. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services. Federal Register (43CFR58798). December 15. 1978. Fowinkle, E. W., Sell, S. H., Wolle, R. H. Predistribution of Potassium Iodide--the Tennessee Experience. Public Health Rep.98 (2):123-6. 1983. Gavrilin, Y. I., Khrouch, V. T., Shinkarev, S. M., Krysenko, N. A., Skryabin, A. M., Bouville, A., Anspaugh, L. R. Chernobyl Accident: Reconstruction of Thyroid Dose for Inhabitants of the Republic of Belarus. Health Physics, 76:105-119. 1999. Getaz, P. E., Shimaoka, K. Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Thyroid in a Population Irradiated for Hodgkin Disease, 1910-1960. J Surg Onc 12: 181-189. 1979.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident Gilbert, E. S., Tarone, R., Bouville, A., Ron, E. Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses from Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests. J Natl Cancer Inst. 4; 90(21):1654-60. 1998. Goldsmith, J. R., Grossman, C. M., Morton, W. E., Nussbaum, R. H., Kordysh, E. A., Quastel, M. R., Sobel, R. B., Nussbaum, F. D. Juvenile Hypothyroidism Among Two Populations Exposed to Radioiodine. Environ Health Perspect Apr. 107(4):303-8. 1999. Hagstrom, R. M. History and procedures for use of potassium iodide (KI) as protective measures for the general public located around fixed nuclear facilities. Presentation to the NAS Committee to Assess the Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident. June 19, 2003. Hamilton, T. E., van Belle, G., LoGerfo, J. P. Thyroid Neoplasms in Marshall Islanders Exposed to Nuclear Fallout. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:629-636. 1987. Holm, L. E., Hall, P., Wiklund, K., Lundell, G., Berg, G., Bjelkengren, G., Cederquist, E., Ericsson, U. B., Hallquist, A., Larsson, L. G. Cancer Risk after Iodine-131 Therapy for Hyperthyroidism. J Nat Cancer Inst 83: 1072-1077. 1991. Hollowell, J. G., Staehling, N. M., Hannon, W. H., Flanders, D. W., Gunter, E. W., Maberly, G. F., Braverman, L. E., Pino, S., Miller, D. T., Garbe, P. L., DeLozier, D. M., and Jackson, R. J. Iodine Nutrition in the United States: Trends and Public Health Implications. Iodine Excretion Data from NHANES I and NHANES III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:3401-3410. 1998. Hotspot 2.01 (Full 32 bit Windows 95/98/00/XP/NT Application). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nonproliferation/Arms Control/International Security, R Division and Hazards Control Department. November 7, 2002. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna: IAEA Safety Series No. 115. 1996.

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Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident Langer, S., Russell, M. L., Akers, D. W. Fission Product Release Pathways in Three Mile Island Unit 2. Nucl Technol 87: 196-204. 1989. Lee, W., Chiacchierini, R. P., Shleien, B., Telles, N. C. Thyroid Tumors Following 131I or Localized X Irradiation to the Thyroid and Pituitary Glands in Rats. Radiat Res. 92:307-19. 1982. Le Guen, B., Hémidy, P. Y., Garcier, Y. French Approach for the Distribution of Iodine Tablets in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants. Health Phys 83: 293-300. 2002. Leissa, B. FDA guidance on KI use, dosing for special populations, and shelf life extension. Presentation by the FDA Lead Medical Officer to the Committee to Assess Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident. FDA Division of Counter-Terrorism. Presented at the National Academies Building, Washington DC, May 29. 2003. Likhtarev, I. A., Gulko, G. M., Kairo, I. A., Los, I. P., Henrichs, K., Paretzke, H. G. Thyroid Doses Resulting from the Ukraine Chernobyl Accident-part I: Dose Estimates for the Population of Kiev. Health Physics 66:137-146. 1994. Likhtarev, I. A., Shandala, N. K., Gulko, G. M., Kairo, I. A., Chepurny, N. I. Ukrainian Thyroid Doses after the Chernobyl Accident. Health Physics 64:594-599. 1993. Little, J. B., Nagasawa, H., Pfenning, T., Vetrovs, H. Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability: Delayed Mutagenic and Cytogenetic Effects of X rays and Alpha Particles. Radiat Res. 148(4):299-307. 1997. Lorimore, S. A., Wright, E. G. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects: Related Inflammatory-Type Responses to Radiation Induced Stress and Injury? A review. Int J Radiat Biol. 79: 15-25. 2003. Lund, E., Galanti, M.R. Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Scandinavia Following Fallout from Atomic Bomb Testing. Cancer Causes Control 10: 181-187. 1999.

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