rule requires that the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score for toddlers must be at least 40 percent for the % DV to be included in the Nutrition Facts box, otherwise the box must include a statement that the food is “not a significant source of protein” (21 C.F.R. 101.9(c)(7)). In the United States many foods designed for infants and toddlers list both the infant and the toddler values as % DV for protein and micronutrients.

Children in Canada. The new Canadian food labeling regulations include different label specifications for children less than 2 years of age (Canada, 2003). The Nutrition Facts table for food intended solely for children under 2 years of age is specifically not to include: the % DV for total fat (or the sum of SFA and TFA), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, carbohydrate, or fiber and the energy values from fat or fatty acids. The Nutrition Facts table must contain the amount of calories and gram amounts per serving of a stated size for total fat, sodium, carbohydrate, fiber, sugars, and protein, with % DVs for vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.

General guidance for infant feeding has been provided in Canada through a statement of a joint working group comprised of the Canadian Paediatric Society, the Dietitians of Canada, and Health Canada: Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants (Canadian Paediatric Society Nutrition Committee et al., 1998). The statement recommends breast-feeding for at least the first 4 months of life and, for formula-fed infants, cow’s milk-based, iron-fortified formulas until 9 to 12 months of age. Labeling, composition, and related packaging and processing of infant formulas are regulated under the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations (Canada, 1988a). Under this law and its amendments, infants are defined as “a person who is under the age of one year,” and the nutrient content and composition of infant formulas are tightly regulated. The food label must include:

(i) the content of protein, fat, available carbohydrate, ash and, where present, crude fibre, … (ii) the energy value expressed in calories … (iii) the quantity of all the vitamins and mineral nutrients set out in Table II5… (iv) the quantity of choline and of any added nutritive substances … (all as) contained in the human milk substitute portion of the food, expressed in grams per 100 grams or per 100 millilitres … or in International Units for table II nutrients … of the human milk substitute portion of the food


Table II includes biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, alpha-tocopherol, vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, calcium, chloride, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc.


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