children ages 1 to 3 years for preformed vitamin A, niacin, and folate from fortified food and supplements and zinc from all sources. The significance of this proximity will need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Magnesium is one nutrient for which the population-weighted EAR would not be lower than the UL for all life stage and gender groups. However, the UL for magnesium is based on only nonfood sources that are consumed acutely, and the criterion used to establish the UL is diarrhea from nonfood sources (IOM, 1997). Magnesium has never been demonstrated to exert any adverse effect when consumed in food.

Supplements, however, differ from whole food in that they are highly concentrated, bioavailable sources of nutrients. While it is nearly impossible to consume levels of nutrients that approach the UL from nutrients that are naturally occurring in conventional food (Turner et al., 2003), there are a few studies that demonstrate ingestion at the UL of certain nutrients from combinations of conventional food and supplements or diets that contain highly fortified food and supplements (Allen and Haskell, 2002; Johnson-Down et al., 2003; O’Brien et al., 2001). In the DRI reports the ULs are predicated on the concern that total nutrient intake should not reach a harmful level. The committee recognizes that dietary supplements provide a substantial portion of total nutrient intake in some segments of the population and contribute to intakes well above the DV and RDA in other segments. The committee is concerned about emerging data, which for the first time are combining nutrient intake from food and supplements and indicate intake levels for some nutrients that closely approach or exceed the UL. To help the consumer place nutrients from supplements into the context of the total daily diet, the committee recommends that the regulatory agencies consider how best to include information about the UL on the supplement label.


During its consideration of the application of DRIs to nutrient reference values, the committee discussed other issues relevant to these values. These issues are: the inclusion of absolute amounts for micronutrients in the Nutrition Facts box, the use of standardized units of quantity in all aspects of nutrition labeling, and the selection and presentation of required nutrients in nutrition labeling that convey a positive public health message and have the greatest public health benefit.

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