2003; Ray et al., 2002a, 2002b, 2003), it would be premature to draw inferences about all discretionary fortification from these studies.

The committee cannot recommend guidelines about the impact of discretionary fortification on nutrient inadequacy and the distribution of inadequate intakes in the population without empirical data on discretionary fortification. Instead, the committee presents four key issues that should be considered as regulatory agencies appraise the public health need for discretionary fortification: the magnitude of the estimated prevalence of inadequacy, the reliability and validity of the prevalence estimate, the health risks associated with the determined inadequacy, and the indications that the nutrient inadequacy can possibly be ameliorated by increasing the availability of the nutrient in the food supply.

Magnitude of the Estimated Prevalence of Inadequacy

Regulatory agencies need to develop criteria to assess the public health importance of prevalence estimates in the context of concerns about discretionary fortification. For example, if the population prevalence of inadequacy for a nutrient is estimated to be 5 percent, questions can be raised about whether this prevalence level is sufficient to justify discretionary fortification. Although 5 percent of the population is a significant number of individuals, unless there is adequate information about this 5 percent of the population that enables fortified food products to be targeted to them, it is unlikely that discretionary fortification would have a discernible impact on the usual nutrient intakes. With a higher prevalence of inadequacy in clearly defined target groups, discretionary fortification might be a more viable strategy. Before considering this option, however, it would be necessary to examine data on the potential impact this discretionary fortification would have on nutrient intake levels in the population. Such prevalence information would need to be determined on the basis of total nutrient intake from food and dietary supplements.

Reliability and Validity of the Prevalence Estimate

There is imprecision associated with all prevalence estimates, but estimates may also be biased by particular methodological problems. In appraising the estimated prevalence of inadequacy for a particular nutrient in the population, the direction and magnitude of measurement errors in the assessment of dietary inadequacy need to be considered. The problems of measurement error associated



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