other foods in order that the food is appropriate for its intended purpose. Health Canada has recommended that manufacturers be given “the flexibility to develop new products targeted to groups or individuals with special needs” (Health Canada, 1999, p. 24). The manufacturer, however, would be required to provide the scientific rationale for both the target group and the nutrient composition. In Canada the composition of meal replacements is regulated under the Food and Drug Regulations to provide nutrients in accordance with the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) and the Nutrition Recommendations (Canada, 1990). Meal replacements must contain approximately 25 percent of the RNIs of 12 vitamins and 10 minerals in a serving, and the quantity and quality of protein and the quantity of fat and essential fatty acids are controlled.

Meal replacements represent a special situation with respect to fortification, be it discretionary as in the United States, or regulated as in Canada. The important consideration is that a meal replacement be fortified with a defined variety of nutrients in quantities appropriate for the meal it replaces.

Another type of special-purpose food, sometimes called a substitute food, is a food product designed specifically to provide an alternative source of a nutrient. Examples include orange juice or soy- and rice-based beverages intended to provide a milligram equivalent amount of calcium per reference serving for persons with lactose intolerance or food allergy, for vegetarians, or for personal choice to meet calcium needs. When discretionary fortification is used for special purposes, the intended use of the targeted food should determine the amount of the proposed nutrient addition.



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