may require harmonization or cross-verification of databases. The application of bioinformatics (classification, manipulation, and retrieval of data) in support of food and supplement databases in both countries would contribute substantially to the accuracy and the ease of use of these databases.

Research on methodologies for the sampling and analysis of food and its constituents is warranted. Consideration must be given to the food matrix, not just the chemical constituent under analysis, as there is impetus from the DRI macronutrient report (IOM, 2002a) to consider fiber and sugar sources as natural or added to food or supplements. The development of valid analytical techniques for differentiating dietary fiber from functional fiber and added sugars from naturally occurring sugars in food and dietary supplements is essential. Other important parameters for this research include how added sugars might contribute to appetite regulation, total energy intake, and nutrient density.

CHANGES IN NUTRITION LABELING AND CONSUMER RESEARCH ON ITS USE

A problem faced by the committee was the paucity of data on consumer use of nutrition labeling, especially on the reference nutrient values. The committee expects that the regulatory agencies will use the guidelines and recommendations in this report in a systematic process to revise the scientific basis for nutrition labeling and for discretionary fortification. As part of this process the committee also recommends a general review of nutrition labeling, as well as significant consumer-based research on the understanding and use of nutrition labeling found on conventional food and supplements.

Nutrition Labeling

As the rules are modified to accommodate changes in the reference values, other changes should be considered. First, the committee recommends that the original intent of the Nutrition Facts box should be reevaluated to determine whether and how it should be modified. Second, a number of elements of nutrition labeling warrant review: the order in which nutrients are listed on the label, which nutrients should be included, the relative emphasis on macro-and micronutrients, the emphasis within macronutrients, the way in which the label may contribute to positive behaviors that address the increase of overweight and obesity in North America, the importance of the position and size of the Nutrition Facts box on the



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