C
Reference Tables



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification C Reference Tables

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-1 Dietary Reference Intakes: Estimated Average Requirements Life Stage Group Vitamin A (µg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)b Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)c Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg/d)d Infants   7–12 mo   Children   1–3 y 210 13 5 0.4 0.4 5 0.4 120 4–8 y 275 22 6 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 160 Males   9–13 y 445 39 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 250 14–18 y 630 63 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 330 19–30 y 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 320 31–50 y 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 320 51–70 y 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 320 > 70 y 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 320 Females   9–13 y 420 39 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 250 14–18 y 485 56 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.0 330 19–30 y 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 31–50 y 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 51–70 y 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 320 > 70 y 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 320 Pregnancy   14–18 y 530 66 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 19–30 y 550 70 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 31–50 y 550 70 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 Lactation   14–18 y 880 96 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 19–30 y 900 100 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 31–50 y 900 100 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 NOTE: This table presents EARs, which serve two purposes: for assessing adequacy of population intakes and as the basis for calculating Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for individuals for those nutrients. EARs have not been established for vitamin D, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, calcium, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process. a As retinol activity equivalents (RAE). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. b As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Vitamin B12 (μg/d) Copper (µg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (µg/d) Magnesium (µg/d) Molybdenum (µg/d) Phosphorus (µg/d) Selenium (µg/d) Zinc (µg/d)         6.9         2.5   0.7 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5 1.0 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0   1.5 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 2.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5 2.0 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4   1.5 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 2.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3 2.0 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8 2.0 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8   2.2 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5 2.2 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5 2.2 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5   2.4 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4 cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan. dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. SOURCE: IOM (1997, 1998, 2000b, 2001).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-2 Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins Life Stage Group Vitamin A (μg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c Vitamin E (mg/d)d Vitamin K (μg/d) Thiamin (mg/d) Infants   0–6 mo 400* 40* 5* 4* 2.0* 0.2* 7–12 mo 500* 50* 5* 5* 2.5* 0.3* Children   1–3 y 300 15 5* 6 30* 0.5 4–8 y 400 25 5* 7 55* 0.6 Males   9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 14–18 y 900 75 5* 15 75* 1.2 19–30 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 31–50 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 51–70 y 900 90 10* 15 120* 1.2 > 70 y 900 90 15* 15 120* 1.2 Females   9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 14–18 y 700 65 5* 15 75* 1.0 19–30 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 31–50 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 51–70 y 700 75 10* 15 90* 1.1 > 70 y 700 75 15* 15 90* 1.1 Pregnancy   14–18 y 750 80 5* 15 75* 1.4 19–30 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 31–50 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 Lactation   14–18 y 1,200 115 5* 19 75* 1.4 19–30 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 31–50 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE. bAs calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. cIn the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight. dAs α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)e Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg/d)f Vitamin B12 (μg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Biotin (μg/d) Choline (mg/d)g   0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150*   0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 200* 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250*   0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* 30* 550*   0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375* 1.0 14 1.2 400i 2.4 5* 25* 400* 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.3 400i 2.4 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* 30* 425*   1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 600j 2.6 6* 30* 450*   1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. hBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. iIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. jIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. SOURCE: IOM (1997, 1998, 2000b, 2001).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-3 Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements Life Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Chromium (μg/d) Copper (μg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Infants   0–6 mo 210* 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 7–12 mo 270* 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 Children   1–3 y 500* 11* 340 0.7* 90 7 4–8 y 800* 15* 440 1* 90 10 Males   9–13 y 1,300* 25* 700 2* 120 8 14–18 y 1,300* 35* 890 3* 150 11 19–30 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 31–50 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 51–70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 > 70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 Females   9–13 y 1,300* 21* 700 2* 120 8 14–18 y 1,300* 24* 890 3* 150 15 19–30 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 31–50 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 51–70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 > 70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 Pregnancy   14–18 y 1,300* 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 19–30 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 31–50 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 Lactation   14–18 y 1,300* 44* 1,300 3* 290 10 19–30 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 31–50 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy infants fed human milk, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Magnesium (mg/d) Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (μg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (μg/d) Zinc (mg/d)   30* 0.003* 2* 100* 15* 2* 75* 0.6* 3* 275* 20* 3   80 1.2* 17 460 20 3 130 1.5* 22 500 30 5   240 1.9* 34 1,250 40 8 410 2.2* 43 1,250 55 11 400 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11   240 1.6* 34 1,250 40 8 360 1.6* 43 1,250 55 9 310 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8   400 2.0* 50 1,250 60 12 350 2.0* 50 700 60 11 360 2.0* 50 700 60 11   360 2.6* 50 1,250 70 13 310 2.6* 50 700 70 12 320 2.6* 50 700 70 12   SOURCE: IOM (1997, 2000b, 2001).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-4 Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Macronutrients Life Stage Group Carbohydrate (g/d) Total Fiber (g/d) Fat (g/d) Linoleic Acid (g/d) α-Linolenic Acid (g/d) Proteina (g/d) Infants   0–6 mo 60* ND 31* 4.4* 0.5* 9.1* 7–12 mo 95* ND 30* 4.6* 0.5* 13.5 Children   1–3 y 130 19* ND 7* 0.7* 13 4–8 y 130 25* ND 10* 0.9* 19 Males   9–13 y 130 26* ND 12* 1.2* 34 14–18 y 130 38* ND 16* 1.6* 52 19–30 y 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56 31–50 y 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56 51–70 y 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56 > 70 y 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56 Females   9–13 y 130 31* ND 10* 1.0* 34 14–18 y 130 26* ND 11* 1.1* 46 19–30 y 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46 31–50 y 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46 51–70 y 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46 > 70 y 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46 Pregnancy   14–18 y 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 19–30 y 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 31–50 y 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 Lactation   14–18 y 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 19–30 y 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 31–50 y 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy infants fed human milk, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. aBased on 0.8 g protein/kg body weight for reference body weight. SOURCE: IOM (2002a).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-5 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges   Range (% of energy) Macronutrient Children, 1–3 y Children, 4–18 y Adults Fat 30–40 25–35 20–35 n-6 polyunsaturated fats (linoleic acid) 5–10 5–10 5–10 n-3 polyunsaturated fatsa (α-linolenic acid) 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 Carbohydrate 45–65 45–65 45–65 Protein 5–20 10–30 10–35 aApproximately 10% of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 fatty acids. SOURCE: IOM (2002a).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-6 Dietary Reference Intakes: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Vitamins Life Stage Group Vitamin A (μg/d)b Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (μg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)c,d Vitamin K Thiamin Infants   0–6 mo 600 NDf 25 ND ND ND 7–12 mo 600 ND 25 ND ND ND Children   1–3 y 600 400 50 200 ND ND 4–8 y 900 650 50 300 ND ND Males, Females   9–13 y 1,700 1,200 50 600 ND ND 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND > 70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND Pregnancy   14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND Lactation   14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. bAs preformed vitamin A only. cAs α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Riboflavin Niacin (mg/d)d Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg/d)d Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Choline (g/d) Carotenoidse   ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND   ND 10 30 300 ND ND ND 1.0 ND ND 15 40 400 ND ND ND 1.0 ND   ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND   ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND   ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND dThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two. eβ-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency. fND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCE: IOM (1997, 1998, 2000b, 2001).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-7 Dietary Reference Intakes: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements Life Stage Group Arsenicb Boron (mg/d) Calcium (g/d) Chromium Copper (μg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Infants   0–6 mo NDf ND ND ND ND 0.7 ND 40 7–12 mo ND ND ND ND ND 0.9 ND 40 Children   1–3 y ND 3 2.5 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 4–8 y ND 6 2.5 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 Males, Females   9–13 y ND 11 2.5 ND 5,000 10 600 40 14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19–70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 > 70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 Pregnancy   14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19–50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 Lactation   14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19–50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, and silicon. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. bAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements. cThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water. dAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Magnesium (mg/d)c Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (μg/d) Nickel (mg/d) Phosphorus (g/d) Selenium (μg/d) Silicond Vanadium (mg/d)e Zinc (mg/d)   ND ND ND ND ND 45 ND ND 4 ND ND ND ND ND 60 ND ND 5   65 2 300 0.2 3 90 ND ND 7 110 3 600 0.3 3 150 ND ND 12   350 6 1,100 0.6 4 280 ND ND 23 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 350 11 2,000 1.0 3 400 ND 1.8 40   350 9 1,700 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 34 350 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 40   350 9 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND ND 40 eAlthough vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents. fND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCE: IOM (1997, 2000b, 2001).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-8 Additional Macronutrient Recommendations Macronutrient Recommendation Dietary cholesterol As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Trans fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Saturated fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Added sugars Limit to no more than 25% of total energy   SOURCE: IOM (2002a).

OCR for page 179
Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE C-9 Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling, Based on a 2,000-Calorie Intake, for Adults and Children 4 or More Years of Age Nutrient Unit of Measure Daily Value Total fat Grams (g) 65 Saturated fatty acids Grams (g) 20 Cholesterol Milligrams (mg) 300 Sodium Milligrams (mg) 2,400 Potassium Milligrams (mg) 3,500 Total carbohydrate Grams (g) 300 Fiber Grams (g) 25 Protein Grams (g) 50 Vitamin A International Unit (IU) 5,000 Vitamin C Milligrams (mg) 60 Calcium Milligrams (mg) 1,000 Iron Milligrams (mg) 18 Vitamin D International Unit (IU) 400 Vitamin E International Unit (IU) 30 Vitamin K Micrograms (μg) 80 Thiamin Milligrams (mg) 1.5 Riboflavin Milligrams (mg) 1.7 Niacin Milligrams (mg) 20 Vitamin B6 Milligrams (mg) 2.0 Folate Micrograms (μg) 400 Vitamin B12 Micrograms (μg) 6.0 Biotin Micrograms (μg) 300 Pantothenic acid Milligrams (mg) 10 Phosphorus Milligrams (mg) 1,000 Iodine Micrograms (μg) 150 Magnesium Milligrams (mg) 400 Zinc Milligrams (mg) 15 Selenium Micrograms (μg) 70 Copper Milligrams (mg) 2.0 Manganese Milligrams (mg) 2.0 Chromium Micrograms (μg) 120 Molybdenum Micrograms (μg) 75 Chloride Milligrams (mg) 3,400 NOTE: Based on reference caloric intake of 2,000 calories. SOURCE: CFSAN (1999).