TABLE C-2 Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c

Vitamin E (mg/d)d

Vitamin K (μg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

 

0–6 mo

400*

40*

5*

4*

2.0*

0.2*

7–12 mo

500*

50*

5*

5*

2.5*

0.3*

Children

 

1–3 y

300

15

5*

6

30*

0.5

4–8 y

400

25

5*

7

55*

0.6

Males

 

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

900

75

5*

15

75*

1.2

19–30 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

31–50 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

51–70 y

900

90

10*

15

120*

1.2

> 70 y

900

90

15*

15

120*

1.2

Females

 

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

700

65

5*

15

75*

1.0

19–30 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

31–50 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

51–70 y

700

75

10*

15

90*

1.1

> 70 y

700

75

15*

15

90*

1.1

Pregnancy

 

14–18 y

750

80

5*

15

75*

1.4

19–30 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

31–50 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

Lactation

 

14–18 y

1,200

115

5*

19

75*

1.4

19–30 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

31–50 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE.

bAs calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

cIn the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

dAs α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.



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