TABLE C-7 Dietary Reference Intakes: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements

Life Stage Group

Arsenicb

Boron (mg/d)

Calcium (g/d)

Chromium

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Infants

 

0–6 mo

NDf

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.7

ND

40

7–12 mo

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.9

ND

40

Children

 

1–3 y

ND

3

2.5

ND

1,000

1.3

200

40

4–8 y

ND

6

2.5

ND

3,000

2.2

300

40

Males, Females

 

9–13 y

ND

11

2.5

ND

5,000

10

600

40

14–18 y

ND

17

2.5

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19–70 y

ND

20

2.5

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

> 70 y

ND

20

2.5

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Pregnancy

 

14–18 y

ND

17

2.5

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19–50 y

ND

20

2.5

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Lactation

 

14–18 y

ND

17

2.5

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19–50 y

ND

20

2.5

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, and silicon. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes.

bAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

cThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

dAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.



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