Index

A

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), 2, 76-77, 91, 93-95, 100, 116-117, 176, 187

Adequate Intakes (AIs)

defined, 3, 65

derivation of, 65-66, 68-69, 75, 92, 105

inadequacy determinations from, 127, 138

by nutrient and life-stage group, 182-186

population-weighted reference values from, 5, 6, 7-8, 82, 91-93, 106, 108, 116, 175

RDAs compared, 66

replacement with EARs, 93

uncertainty in, 66, 93

uses, 66

Adolescents, 65, 70-71, 107, 108, 146

Adults, 65, 70, 71, 73, 75, 187

African Americans, 70

American Academy of Pediatrics, 68, 69

American Bakers Association, 47

American Medical Association, Council on Foods and Nutrition, 46, 47

American Public Health Association, 46

Amino aids, 64, 104

Arsenic, 190

Artificial sweeteners, 35

B

B vitamins, 52.

See also individual vitamins

Basal metabolic rate, 63

Basal requirement, 62

Beriberi, 52

Bioavailability of nutrients, 65, 69, 70-71, 77, 110, 136, 138

Biotin, 21, 22, 92, 115, 116, 118-119, 146, 175, 183, 189, 193

Body mass index, 72

Boron, 190

Bush, George H.W., 23

C

Calcium, 21, 22, 30, 36, 39, 46, 50, 52, 92, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 139, 144, 146, 175, 184, 190, 193

Calorie reference level, 27, 37, 41, 97-99, 113, 193

Canada

action plan on nutrition, 36-37

consumer attitudes and behavior, 37, 43-44

educational campaigns, 53-54

Food and Drugs Act, 35, 37



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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Index A Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), 2, 76-77, 91, 93-95, 100, 116-117, 176, 187 Adequate Intakes (AIs) defined, 3, 65 derivation of, 65-66, 68-69, 75, 92, 105 inadequacy determinations from, 127, 138 by nutrient and life-stage group, 182-186 population-weighted reference values from, 5, 6, 7-8, 82, 91-93, 106, 108, 116, 175 RDAs compared, 66 replacement with EARs, 93 uncertainty in, 66, 93 uses, 66 Adolescents, 65, 70-71, 107, 108, 146 Adults, 65, 70, 71, 73, 75, 187 African Americans, 70 American Academy of Pediatrics, 68, 69 American Bakers Association, 47 American Medical Association, Council on Foods and Nutrition, 46, 47 American Public Health Association, 46 Amino aids, 64, 104 Arsenic, 190 Artificial sweeteners, 35 B B vitamins, 52. See also individual vitamins Basal metabolic rate, 63 Basal requirement, 62 Beriberi, 52 Bioavailability of nutrients, 65, 69, 70-71, 77, 110, 136, 138 Biotin, 21, 22, 92, 115, 116, 118-119, 146, 175, 183, 189, 193 Body mass index, 72 Boron, 190 Bush, George H.W., 23 C Calcium, 21, 22, 30, 36, 39, 46, 50, 52, 92, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 139, 144, 146, 175, 184, 190, 193 Calorie reference level, 27, 37, 41, 97-99, 113, 193 Canada action plan on nutrition, 36-37 consumer attitudes and behavior, 37, 43-44 educational campaigns, 53-54 Food and Drugs Act, 35, 37

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification fortification policies, 4, 16, 52-55, 124, 135, 143-144 nutrition issues, 52, 97, 98 nutrition labeling, 13, 14, 35-40, 43-44, 85, 89, 97, 98, 101, 104-105, 111, 116 Recommended Daily Intakes, 38 Recommended Nutrient Intakes, 2, 14, 36, 39-40, 56, 57, 58, 68, 144 reference values for nutrients, 2, 14, 35-40, 44, 174-178 reference weights and heights, 73-74 special purpose foods, 143-144 temporary marketing authorization, 135 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 37 Canadian National Institute of Nutrition, 57 Canadian Paediatric Society, 68, 69, 104 Cancer, 120 Carbohydrate, 24, 35, 69, 94, 95, 96, 98, 103, 104, 105, 176, 186, 187, 193 Carotenoids, 137, 146, 189 Children (ages 4-8), 64, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 95, 187 Chloride, 115, 193 Cholesterol, dietary, 24, 27, 38, 39, 99, 101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 120, 121, 192, 193 Choline, 92, 115, 118-119, 146, 175, 183, 189 Chromium, 92, 115, 118-119, 127, 134, 146, 175, 184, 190, 193 Chronic disease risk reduction, 1, 22-23, 24, 29, 36, 74, 75, 76, 99, 120, 123, 124 Codex Alimentarius Commission, 54 Consumer Health Information for Better Nutrition, 31 Consumer research on Canadian nutrition labeling, 37, 43-44 context of, 40-41 on diet quality, 42-43, 150 recommendations, 11-12, 146, 149-152 satisfaction with label, 42 on U.S. nutrition labeling, 25, 40-41, 80, 149-152 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 100 Copper, 21, 22, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 184, 190, 193 Coronary heart disease, 92, 95, 99, 100, 113, 120 D Daily Reference Values, 14, 23, 23-26, 38, 51, 81, 114, 116 Daily Values (% DV) base population, 81 calorie reference level, 27, 37, 41, 97-99, 113, 193 consumer understanding of, 14, 39, 40-41, 100, 150-151 defined, 80-81 for fatty acids and cholesterol, 99-101 implications of changes in, 114-122 inappropriate and misleading items, 95-97 for infant and toddler foods, 102-107 by life-stage group, 102-108 for macronutrients, 39, 98 margin of safety, 89, 90 by nutrient, 118-119, 193 population-weighted values compared, 118-119 rationale for using, 25, 26, 39, 80, 83 RDA-based, 2, 13, 14, 52, 83-84, 89, 103 supplement labeling, 31, 32-33, 108-109 Diabetes mellitus, 43, 113 Diet and Health (report), 1, 22, 24 Dietary Goals for the United States, 1, 22 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 22 Dietary intake data, 100, 101, 129, 130, 131, 148 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) applicable population, 77 categories, 2, 14, 61-74; see also Adequate Intakes, Estimated Average Requirements; Recommended Dietary Allowances; Tolerable Upper Intake Levels criteria for, 60-61, 74, 75, 76, 130 defined, 60-61 derivation of, 58, 67-72 energy intake and, 2, 76-77 extrapolation of data, 63, 66, 69, 72, 138 fortification issues, 2, 4, 14, 74-78, 129-130 framework, 58-60 international harmonization of, 2, 57-59 labeling considerations, 2, 4, 14, 75 macronutrient issues, 76-77 nutrient intake issues, 77

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification origin, 56-58 reference heights and weights and, 72-74, 75 research recommendations, 11, 146 subgroups and special populations, 77 uses, 2, 14, 58, 124, 126 Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrition in the United Kingdom, 57 Dietary Supplement Act of 1992, 25, 31 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, 31, 33 Dietary supplements. See also Supplement Facts box bioavailability considerations, 77, 110 botanical ingredients, 31-32 data support recommendations, 11, 145-146, 148-149 defined, 31 n.5 dietary intake data, 129 exposure assessment, 142-143 fortification issues, 49, 142-143 health claims, 30-31, 33 nutrient content claims, 33 nutrition labeling on, 17, 20, 23, 28, 30-33, 108-109, 110, 112 population-weighted reference value for, 8, 109 standards of identity, 49 structure/function claims, 33 ULs and, 78, 109-110, 146-147 Dietitians of Canada, 104 Discretionary fortification. See also Fortification of food Canadian policy, 54 charge to committee, 4, 15-16, 125 conceptual model, 131-138 decision-making approach, 9-11, 130, 131-138, 140-142 defined, 4, 45 dietary supplements and, 49, 142-143 EAR and, 9, 11, 131 examples, 135-138 existing practices, 138-140 exposure assessment, 11, 132, 135, 138, 142-143 FDA policy, 15, 45, 49-51, 142-143 food composition databases and, 139-140, 147-148 guiding principles, 4, 8-9, 16, 124-144 impacts, 8-9, 135, 147-148 implementation issues, 138-144 international harmonization of, 125 labeling issues, 20, 25, 27, 35, 138-139 nutrient content claims as a standard, 138-139 prevalence of inadequacy and, 8, 9, 125, 126-131, 136, 147-148 reference standards, 49, 50 research recommendations, 11, 145, 147-148 review of longstanding practices, 139-140 scientific justification and criteria, 8, 9, 126-131, 132 severity of adverse effect and, 11, 130, 140-142 for special-use products, 143-144 ULs and, 9, 11, 15-16, 17, 67, 130, 131, 134-137, 140-143, 147 vulnerable populations, 15-16, 17, 143-144 E Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970, 20, 34 Energy intakes and DRIs, 2, 76-77 labeling values, 27, 35, 39, 97-101, 193 and nutrient intakes, 130 Energy metabolism, 70 Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) cut-point method, 127 defined, 3, 61, 75-76, 83-84 derivation of, 62, 75 and discretionary fortification, 9, 11, 131 by nutrient and life-stage group, 180-183 nutrients without, 146 as nutrition labeling basis, 5, 6, 7-8, 75-76, 82-91, 94, 106, 108, 116, 173, 177, 178 and RDA, 62, 63, 64, 66, 89-91 research recommendations, 11, 145, 146 skewed distribution of requirements and, 85 uses, 62 Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs), 98 Exposure assessment, 11, 132, 135, 138, 142-143 Extrapolation of data, 63, 66, 69, 72, 138

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification F Factorial modeling, 64, 94 Fat, dietary AMDR, 94-95, 100 content claims, 117 disqualification from health claims, 121 intakes, 42, 43 labeling, 24, 27-29, 35, 37-38, 41, 42, 94-95, 98, 99-101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 121 menu modeling, 99, 101 recommended intakes for individuals, 186 reference values, 193 saturated fatty acids, 27, 39, 98, 99-101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 121, 192, 193 trans fatty acids, 27-29, 37-38, 39, 92, 99-101, 104, 105, 127, 146, 150-151, 176, 187, 192 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, 20, 48, 49, 50 Federal Meat Inspection Act, 19, 34 Fiber, dietary, 24, 27, 30, 92, 103, 104, 105, 113, 116, 118-119, 120, 121, 146, 149, 186, 193 Fluoride, 92, 115, 118-119, 146, 175, 184, 190 Folate, 16, 47, 78, 110, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 130, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 183, 189, 193 Folic acid, 21, 46, 47, 127 Food and Agriculture Organization, 62 Food and Drugs Act of 1906, 18-19, 20 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Consumer Health Information for Better Nutrition, 31 consumer research, 40, 41, 111 criticisms of, 21 education role, 147 fortification policy and authority, 15, 45, 48-51, 55, 124, 125, 142, 143 labeling jurisdiction, 1, 14, 20, 23, 26, 27-31 standards of identity, 4, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 55 Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997, 30, 49 Food and Nutrition Board, 46, 47, 56-57 Food composition databases and discretionary fortification, 139-140, 147-148 research and data support recommendations, 11, 145-146, 148-149 Food Guide Pyramid, 42, 150 Food Label Use and Nutrition Education Surveys (FLUNES), 41 Food Marketing Institute, 41, 42 Food Safety and Inspection Service, 4, 14, 24, 26, 33-35, 50 Fortification of food. See also Discretionary fortification Canadian policy, 4, 16, 45, 52-55, 124, 135, 143-144 current policies, 49-51, 143 defined, 45 DRI applications, 2, 4, 14, 74-78, 129-130 early approaches, 45-48 flour, bread, and cereal grains, 46-47, 52, 53, 127-128, 139 iodized salt, 36, 46, 53 labeling issues, 47, 110, 121-122 mandatory (enrichment), 4, 45, 46-47, 52, 53, 55, 127-128, 139 margarine, 47, 50, 52 nutrition issues, 45-47, 49, 52, 124-125 overages, 121-122 “positive listing” approach, 52-53, 54 principles, 47-48, 53, 54 U.S. policy, 45-51, 55, 124 vitamin D in milk, 46, 53 G Goiter, 46 Guide to Food Labelling and Advertising, 39 Guidelines on Nutrition Labelling, 36 H Health Canada, 4, 14, 36, 37, 43, 53, 54, 57, 101, 104, 144, 147 Health claims, 16, 26, 27, 29-31, 33, 34-35, 36, 39-40, 112, 114, 116, 117-121 Healthy Eating Index, 42 Hemochromatosis, 136, 138 Human milk, 65, 66, 68, 69, 92, 102-103, 105, 107 Hypertension, 120

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification I Inadequacy of nutrient intake. See also Prevalence of inadequate intakes health risks associated with, 129-130 selection of strategy to address, 130-131 Infant formula, 20, 65, 68, 103, 106 Infant Formula Act of 1980, 103, 106 Infants AI derivation for, 65, 66, 68-69, 92, 105 comparison of nutrient reference values, 106 defined, 104 labeling of foods manufactured for, 27, 102-107 premature, 107 Ingredient lists, 20, 29, 33 International Atomic Energy Agency, 62 Iodide, 36, 46, 53 Iodine, 21, 46, 89, 115, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 184, 190, 193 Irradiation of foods, 46 Iron, 21, 22, 30, 36, 46, 52, 64, 65, 69, 89, 104, 105, 106, 107, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 127, 136, 138, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 184, 190, 193 J Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, 54 n.4 K Koop, C. Everett, 22 L Labeling. See Nutrition labeling Lactation. See Pregnant and lactating women Life stage and gender groups AIs for nutrients by, 182-187 categories, 67-72 and derivation of DRIs, 67-72 EARs for nutrients by, 180-183 labeling for food manufactured for specific groups, 102-108 RDAs for nutrients by, 182-187 RDI calculations by, 24 ULs for nutrients by, 188-191 M Macronutrients. See also Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range; individual nutrients EARs for, 94 labeling, 21-22, 23, 24, 27-29, 35, 36, 37-38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 76, 94-95, 98, 99-101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 121 recommended intakes for individuals, 186-187, 192 special issues for, 76-77 Magnesium, 21, 36, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 115, 118-119, 141, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 185, 191, 193 Malnutrition, 21 Manganese, 78, 92, 115, 118-119, 127, 146, 175, 185, 191, 193 Meal replacements, 143-144 Meat and poultry products, 33-34, 50 Menu modeling, 99, 101 Minimum Daily Requirements, 13, 20 Molybdenum, 115, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 185, 191, 193 Monte Carlo simulation, 65 N National Academies, 30, 56 National Academy of Sciences, 46 National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, 100 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Third, 72, 73 National Nutrition Conference for Defense, 46 Neural tube defects, 120 Neuropathy, 146-147 New Dextra Brand Fortified Cane Sugar, 48, 50 Niacin, 16, 21, 36, 46, 78, 85, 110, 115, 118-119, 141, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 183, 189, 193 Nickel, 191 Night blindness, 130 Nitrogen balance studies, 94 Nixon, Richard, 21, 49 Normative storage requirement level, 62-63

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Nutrient content claims, 26, 27, 29, 33, 36, 39, 112, 114, 116-117, 138-139 Nutrient density index, 36, 99 Nutrition Canada Survey, 52, 73 Nutrition During Lactation, 68, 69 Nutrition Facts box (U.S.). See also Daily Values; Nutrition labeling; Supplement Facts box absolute amounts on, 8, 96, 110-113, 150-151 consumer use and understanding of, 41-43, 109, 111, 112, 113, 149 design elements, 27, 28, 92, 103, 113 and diet quality, 14, 42-43, 150 as educational tool, 112, 113, 152 on infant foods, 103, 104 positive health design, 16, 122-123 purpose, 100-101 reference value, 82 scientific basis, 2, 14 size considerations, 6, 112, 149-150 target population, 85, 113 Nutrition Facts table (Canada), 37-38, 39, 104 Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Health, 36-37 Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants, 104 Nutrition Information Panel (NIP) (Canada), 43-44 Nutrition labeling. See also Daily Values animal production claims and processing statement, 34 Canadian, 13, 14, 16, 35-40, 43-44 charge to committee, 15, 16-17 for children less than 4 years, 27, 102-107 chronic disease risk reduction approach, 22, 24, 29, 36, 120, 123 composite RNI, 36 consumer understanding and use of, 25, 26, 37, 39, 40-44, 60, 149-152 current status of, 16, 26-35, 37-40 Daily Reference Values, 14, 23-26, 38, 81, 114, 116 deficiency disease prevention, 21, 75-76, 123 on dietary supplements, 17, 20, 23, 28, 30-33, 108-109, 110, 112 DRI applications, 2, 4, 14, 75 energy values, 27, 35, 39, 97-101, 193 on FDA-regulated products, 1, 14, 20, 23, 26, 27-31 First Amendment considerations, 31 and food formulation, 25, 121 fortification issues, 20, 25, 27, 35, 47, 110, 121-122, 138-139 of FSIS-regulated products, 33-35 guiding principles, 4-8, 16, 35, 80-109 health claims, 16, 26, 27, 29-31, 33, 34-35, 36, 39-40, 112, 114, 116, 117-121 of infant and toddler foods, 102-107 ingredient lists, 20, 29, 33 legislation and regulations, 1, 18-20, 23, 25, 34 for life-stage specific products, 81-82, 102-109 macronutrients, 21-22, 23, 24, 27-29, 35, 36, 37-38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 76, 94-95, 98, 99-101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 121 mandatory, 1-2, 23, 24, 36 milestones, 1, 19 minerals, 21, 22, 26 Minimum Daily Requirements, 13, 20 nutrient content claims, 26, 27, 29, 33, 36, 39, 112, 114, 116-117, 138-139 nutrient density index, 36, 99 overages, 121-122 for pregnancy and lactation, 107-108 purpose, 40 RDA-based, 2, 14, 38, 52 Recommended Daily Intakes, 36, 44 Recommended Nutrient Intakes, 14, 36 Reference Amounts, 39 Reference Daily Intakes, 23-26, 38, 81 reference values in Canada, 2, 14, 35-40, 44, 174-178 reference values in United States, 1, 2, 13, 14, 18-35, 173, 193; see also Population-weighted reference value reports and recommendations, 1, 22-23 representative population, 81 research recommendations, 11-12, 151-152 reviews and revisions to, 123, 149-150 scientific basis for, 79-80 serving size, 39, 108, 150 structure/function claims, 26, 29, 33 sugars and added sugars, 27, 95-97 UL considerations, 109-110 units of quantity for micronutrients, 113-114, 115

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification US RDAs, 13, 21-23, 24, 25-26, 40, 75, 80 vitamins, 21, 22, 26 voluntary, 27, 35-36 Weighted Recommended Nutrient Intake, 39-40 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, 1, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 33, 40, 47, 80, 98, 111 O Osteoporosis, 120 Overweight and obesity, 13, 52, 74, 94, 95, 97, 98, 113, 124, 149-150 P Pantothenic acid, 21, 22, 36, 92, 107, 115, 116, 118-119, 127, 146, 175, 183, 189, 193 Phosphorus, 21, 22, 36, 107, 115, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 185, 191, 193 Physical activity, 71 Population-weighted reference value AIs as basis for, 5, 6, 7-8, 82, 91-93, 106, 108, 116, 175 AMDRs as basis for, 5, 6, 82, 91-92, 93-95, 116-117, 176 calculation examples, 85-89, 172-178 with Canadian population figures, 174 combining subpopulation distributions, 84-85 current Daily Values compared, 118-119 EAR as basis for, 5, 6, 7-8, 75-76, 82-91, 94, 106, 108, 116, 173, 177, 178 implications of changes, 114-122 margin of safety in, 109-110 RDA and, 83-84, 89-91 for supplements, 8, 109 with U.S. population figures, 174 Potassium, 24, 35, 38, 39, 103, 104, 105, 115, 120, 193 Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957, 20, 34 Pregnant and lactating women, 69, 71-72, 177-178 adolescents, 107, 108 discretionary fortification, 137 labeling of foods for, 107-108, 177, 178 research needs, 146 and ULs, 16 Prevalence of inadequate intakes assessment of, 126-128 and fortification of foods and, 8, 9, 125, 126-131, 136, 147-148 and health risks, 129-130 magnitude of estimates, 128 reliability and validity of estimates, 128-129 Protein, dietary, 21, 24, 27, 30, 35, 39, 52, 63, 64, 69, 94, 95, 98, 103-104, 105, 106, 113, 116-117, 120, 121, 127, 186, 187, 193 Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, 116-117 Puberty, 70-71, 73 R Recommended Daily Intakes (Canada), 36 Recommended Daily Intakes (U.S.), 24, 36, 44 Recommended Dietary Allowances (reports), 22, 24, 56, 58, 68 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) AIs compared, 66 CV, 63, 84, 85, 89 Daily Values on food labels based on, 2, 13, 14, 52, 83-84, 89, 103 defined, 3, 61, 62, 84 derivation, 62-65, 66 and EAR, 62, 63, 64, 66, 89-91 on food labels, 2, 14, 38, 52 inappropriate applications, 58, 62, 68-69 for nonnormally distributed requirements, 64-65 for normally distributed requirements, 63, 83 by nutrient and life-stage group, 182-187 population-adjusted mean, 24-25 and population-weighted reference value, 83-84, 89-91 replacement with DRIs, 2 revision, 57 US RDAs derived from, 2, 21-22, 24 uses, 62, 63, 66

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Recommended Intakes for Individuals elements, 164-185 macronutrients, 186-187, 192 vitamins, 181-183 Recommended Nutrient Intakes (Canada), 2, 14, 36, 39-40, 56, 57, 58, 68, 144 Reference Daily Intakes, 23-26, 38, 81 Reference heights and weights, 72-74, 75, 92 Research and data support recommendations consumer use of nutrition labels, 11-12, 146, 149-152 food composition and dietary supplement databases, 11, 145-146, 148-149 fortification impacts, 11, 145, 147-148 nutrient requirement determinations, 11, 145, 146 UL biological endpoints, 11, 145, 146-147 Riboflavin, 21, 36, 46, 86, 88, 115, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 183, 189, 193 Rickets, 52, 53-54 Risk of excess nutrient intakes, 67, 138 Roosevelt, Franklin, 46 S Saturated fatty acids, 27, 39, 98, 99-101, 103, 104, 105, 117, 121, 192, 193 Selenium, 118-119, 146, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 185, 191, 193 Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, 22 Serving size, 39, 108, 150 Silicon, 191 Sodium, 24, 35, 38, 39, 103, 104, 105, 113, 115, 120, 193 Special purpose foods, 143-144 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, 143 Standards of identity, 4, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 55 Structure/function claims, 26, 29, 33 Subgroups and special populations, 77, 84-85, 89, 125 Substitute foods, 144 Sugars and added sugars, 27, 48, 95-97, 149, 192 Supplement Facts box, 8, 31-33, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 151; see also Dietary supplements Surgeon General’s Report on Nutrition and Health, 1, 22, 24 T Temporary marketing authorization, 135 Therapeutic Lifestyle Change diet, 100 Thiamin, 21, 36, 46, 50, 115, 118-119, 134, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 182, 188, 193 Toddlers (ages 1-3), 70, 78 comparison of nutrient reference values, 105 labeling of foods manufactured for, 27, 102-107 margin of safety for fortified foods and supplements, 109-110 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) biological endpoints, 146-147 defined, 3, 66, 131, 140 derivation of, 67 fortification issues, 15-16, 17, 67, 78, 131, 140-143, 147 labeling issues, 109-110 by nutrient and life-stage group, 188-191 rationale for, 58, 77, 124, 131 research recommendations, 146-147 risk assessment framework, 131 supplement use and, 78, 109-110, 146-147 vulnerable populations, 15-16, 17, 77 Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, 62 Trans fatty acids, 27-29, 37-38, 39, 92, 99-101, 104, 105, 127, 146, 150-151, 176, 186, 187, 192 U United Kingdom, Dietary Reference Values, 57, 58 United States consumer research in, 40-41 Department of Agriculture, 4, 14, 20, 22; see also Food Safety and Inspection Service

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification Department of Health and Human Services, 4, 14; see also Food and Drug Administration Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 22 fortification policy, 45-51, 55, 124; see also Discretionary fortification nutrition labeling in, 13, 18-35, 40-41, 102-104, 173, 193 reference values for nutrients, 1, 2, 13, 14, 18-35, 173, 193;   see also Daily Values; Population-weighted reference value Surgeon General, 22 U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, 13, 21-23, 24, 25-26, 40, 75, 80 V Vanadium, 191 Vitamin A, 16, 21, 30, 36, 49, 52, 78, 85, 89, 104, 105, 106, 110, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 130, 137, 141, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 182, 188, 193 Vitamin B6, 21, 36, 115, 146-147, 180, 183, 189, 193 Vitamin B12, 21, 36, 115, 116, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 183, 189, 193 Vitamin C, 21, 30, 36, 50, 52, 104, 105, 106, 115, 116, 118-119, 120, 137-138, 146, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 182, 188, 193 Vitamin D, 21, 36, 39, 46, 49, 53-54, 92, 105, 106, 107, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 136-137, 141-142, 146, 175, 182, 188, 193 Vitamin E, 21, 36, 86, 87, 114, 115, 116, 118-119, 146, 173, 174, 177, 178, 180, 182, 188, 193 Vitamin K, 92, 115, 116, 118-119, 127, 146, 175, 182, 188, 193 Vulnerable populations, 15-16, 17, 77, 89, 125, 143-144 W War Food Order, 47 Weighted Recommended Nutrient Intake, 39-40 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health, 1, 21, 49 Wholesome Meat Act of 1967, 20 Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968, 20 World Health Organization, 62 World War II, 46-47 Z Zinc, 16, 21, 36, 69, 78, 105, 106, 110, 115, 118-119, 173, 174, 177, 178, 181, 185, 191, 193

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