number of individuals (100,000) are randomly generated. Information about the distribution of values for the requirement components is modeled on the basis of known physiology. Monte Carlo approaches may be used in the simulation of the distribution of components; where large data sets exist for similar populations (e.g., growth rates in infants), estimates of relative variability may be transferred to the component in the simulated population (Gentle, 1998). At each step the goal is to achieve distribution values for the component that not only reflect known physiology or known direct observations, but also can be transformed into a distribution that can be modeled and used in selecting random members to contribute to the final requirement distribution. When the final distribution representing the convolution of components has been derived, then the median and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution can be directly estimated. It is recognized that in its simplest form the Monte Carlo approach ignores possible correlation among components. In the case of iron, however, expected correlation is built into the modeling of requirement where components are linked to a common variable (e.g., growth rate) so that not all sources of correlation are neglected.

Adequate Intake

If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to calculate an EAR, a reference intake called an Adequate Intake (AI) is provided instead of an RDA. The AI is a value based on experimentally determined approximations or estimates of observed median nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of healthy people. In the judgment of the DRI Standing Committee, the AI is expected to meet or exceed the amount needed to maintain a defined nutritional state or criterion of adequacy in essentially all members of a specific, apparently healthy population. Examples of defined nutritional states include normal growth, maintenance of normal circulating nutrient values, or other aspects of nutritional well-being or general health.

For young infants for whom human milk is the recommended sole source of food for most nutrients for the first 4 to 6 months of life, the AI is based on the daily mean nutrient intake supplied by human milk for healthy, full-term infants who are exclusively fed human milk. The goal may be different for infants consuming infant formula for which the bioavailability of a nutrient may be different from that in human milk. For adults the AI may be based on data from a single experiment, on estimated dietary intakes in apparently healthy population groups, or on a review of data from different



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