. "5 Guiding Principles for Selecting Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.
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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
Using a Population-Weighted Reference Value
GUIDING PRINCIPLE 2. The Daily Values (DVs) should be based on a population-weighted reference value.
As noted above, a single reference value is most appropriate for the Nutrition Facts box, but this value must be designed to be meaningful for a base population that is 4 years of age and older. Even this smaller base population is comprised of 13 separate life stage groups in the DRI reports, excluding pregnancy and lactation. These groups are: all children ages 4 to 8 years and for males and females, separate groups based on the following age breaks: 9 to 13 years, 14 to 18 years, 19 to 30 years, 31 to 50 years, 51 to 70 years, and older than 70 years. Although the DRIs can differ for these groups, for many nutrients multiple groups have the same values. Because it is not practical to provide a DV for nutrition labeling for each of the 13 life stage groups, it is necessary to combine the DRIs for the groups to produce a single DV for the general population.
The committee considered a variety of ways to compute the DV and concluded that the most scientifically valid approach was to apply weighting based on census data and the proportions of each life stage and gender group in the overall national population. A DV defined in this way will represent a central value of the requirement for the base population, with individual requirements varying around this value. The details are slightly different for nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), where the distribution of the requirements has been defined; for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI), where the distribution of requirements could not be defined; and for nutrients with an Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR), where the reference values are expressed as a range. The rationale, however, is the same regardless of which DRI is provided: because the groups are represented in the base population in different proportions, the DRIs of the groups should be represented in the DV of the base population in the same proportions.
Developing Reference Values Based on the Estimated Average Requirement
GUIDING PRINCIPLE 3. A population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) should be the basis for Daily Values (DVs) for those nutrients for which EARs have been identified.