oped. For nutrients for which an EAR could not be derived, the committee recommends several different approaches to developing the DVs.

The committee recognizes that the AIs and AMDRs reflect their names in that they do not describe the distribution of intake requirements for a nutrient, but rather represent the best approach scientifically available to describe an acceptable intake level or range. Because EARs could not be set for all nutrients, there will have to be a heterogeneity of reference values for the DVs until such time that the science base permits the replacement of AI estimates with EARs. The committee notes however, with the exception of calcium and vitamin D, that EAR values have been set for almost all of the micronutrients that are currently included or are optional in the Nutrition Facts box.

Using Adequate Intakes When There Are No EARs

GUIDING PRINCIPLE 4. If no Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) has been set for a nutrient, then a population-weighted Adequate Intake (AI) should be used as the basis for the Daily Value (DV).

Despite the heterogeneous derivation of the AIs, the committee recommends the use of a population-weighted AI for the DV for nutrients for which no EAR exists. Nutrients for which AIs have been set fall into several groups based on the approach used for their derivation: AIs specially derived for infants; AIs based on experimental data (calcium, vitamin D, choline, biotin, fluoride) (IOM, 1997, 1998); AIs set using the median intake of the nutrient where no deficiency was observed (pantothenic acid, vitamin K, chromium, manganese, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) (IOM, 1998, 2001, 2002a); and an AI based on the level observed to protect against coronary heart disease (fiber) (IOM, 2002a). The AI for fiber is expressed as an amount per 1,000 kcal.

The AIs for infants, which are set for one or both of two life stage groups (i.e., for younger infants ages 0 through 6 months and older infants ages 7 through 12 months), bear brief mention because they were set for specific age categories. For the younger infants the AI is defined as the amount of the nutrient provided in the usual daily intake of human milk; for the older infants the AI is defined as the amount of the nutrient provided by the usual daily intake of human milk and solid food typical for the age group.

The AI was provided for a nutrient if there was not enough scien-



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