tific evidence available to calculate an EAR. The AI was developed using a “greater degree of judgment than is applied in estimating an EAR” and accordingly there “… is much less certainty about an AI value” (IOM, 2002a, pp. 1–5). These points, along with the heterogeneity of its derivation, make the AI a less desirable replacement for the EAR as a reference value for the DVs. Specifically, the fact that AI estimates do not describe the distribution of requirements for a particular nutrient means that DVs based on population-weighted AIs will not have the same meaning as those based on population-weighted EARs. Insofar as an AI exceeds the mean requirement, a DV based on this value will underestimate the relative contribution of particular foods to total daily nutrient needs. Because the precise relationship between an AI and the true distribution of nutrient requirements is unknown, it is impossible to quantify or adjust for this distortion. The committee has made its best effort to use the current DRIs for labeling purposes. The lack of an EAR for some nutrients underscores the need for more research in this area to provide the best scientific estimates of nutrient requirements and therefore the best sources of reference values for nutrition labeling. As the study of requirements for nutrients with AIs continues to evolve, it is anticipated that AIs will be replaced with EARs and RDAs. It will be important to then revise the DVs so that they will all be based on population-weighted EARs and will provide consumers with a consistent standard against which to evaluate the nutrient contributions of a food.

Protein, Total Carbohydrate, and Total Fat

GUIDING PRINCIPLE 5. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) should be the basis for the Daily Values (DVs) for the macronutrients protein, total carbohydrate, and total fat.

An AMDR is not a DRI, but was created to provide guidance for recommended intakes of macronutrients to reduce chronic disease risk. The DRI report on macronutrients (IOM, 2002a) established the AMDR and defined it as:

… a range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. The AMDR is expressed as a percentage of total energy intake because its requirement, in a classical sense, is not independent of other energy fuel sources or of the total energy requirement of the individual. (p. S-5)



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