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A Data Tables 161

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162 TABLE A.1 Federal Poverty Guidelines, 2002 and 2003 Federal Poverty Level (FPL) Family Size in FPL for 2002 FPL for 2003 48 Contiguous States 100% FPL 200% FPL 300% FPL 100% FPL 200% FPL 300% FPL 1 person $8,860 $17,720 $26,580 $8,980 $17,960 $26,940 2 persons $11,940 $23,880 $35,820 $12,120 $24,240 $36,360 3 persons $15,020 $30,040 $45,060 $15,260 $30,520 $45,780 4 persons $18,100 $36,200 $54,300 $18,400 $36,800 $55,200 SOURCE: DHHS, 2003.

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163 APPENDIX A TABLE A.2 Distribution of Uninsured Population and Probabilities of Going Without Coverage by Selected Characteristics, 2002 No. of No. in Distribution Uninsured Population in Population (est.) Uninsured (thousands) (%) (thousands) Rate (%) Total 285,933 100.0 43,574 15.2 Work experience (18-64 yrs old) Total 178,388 100.0 34,785 19.5 Worked during year 142,918 80.1 25,679 18.0 Worked full-time 118,411 66.4 19,911 16.8 Worked part-time 24,506 13.7 5,767 23.5 Did not work during year 35,470 19.9 9,106 25.7 Household income (not income for health insurance unit) Less than $25,000 62,979 22.0 14,776 23.5 $25,000 to $49,999 75,927 26.6 14,638 19.3 $50,000 to $74,999 58,622 20.5 6,904 11.8 $75,000 or more 88,406 30.9 7,256 8.2 Federal poverty level Total (in poverty universea) 285,317 100.0 43,371 15.2 Earning up to 100% FPL 34,570 12.1 10,492 30.4 Earning between 100% and 200% FPL 12,514 4.4 3,488 27.9 Educational attainment (18 years and older) Total 212,622 100.0 35,042 16.5 No high school diploma 34,829 16.4 9,768 28.0 High school graduate only 67,512 31.8 12,671 18.8 Some college, no degree 41,319 19.4 6,214 15.0 Associate degree 16,350 7.7 1,981 12.1 Bachelor’s degree or higher 52,612 24.7 4,408 8.4 Firm size (18-64 yrs old) Total 142,918 100.0 25,679 18.0 Less than 25 employees 42,025 29.4 12,520 29.8 25 to 99 employees 18,650 13.0 3,686 19.8 100 to 499 employees 19,579 13.7 2,626 13.4 500 to 999 employees 7,705 5.4 812 10.5 1000 or more employees 54,958 38.4 6,035 11.0 Age Under 18 years 73,312 25.6 8,531 11.6 18 to 24 years 27,438 9.6 8,128 29.6 25 to 34 years 39,243 13.7 9,769 24.9 35 to 44 years 44,074 15.4 7,781 17.7 45 to 54 years 40,234 14.1 5,586 13.9 55 to 64 years 27,399 9.6 3,521 12.8 65 years or more 34,234 12.0 258 0.8 Continued

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164 INSURING AMERICA’S HEALTH TABLE A.2 Continued No. of No. in Distribution Uninsured Population in Population (est.) Uninsured (thousands) (%) (thousands) Rate (%) Immigrant and nativity status Born in United States 252,463 88.3 32,388 12.8 Foreign born 33,471 11.7 11,186 33.4 Naturalized citizen 12,837 4.5 2,251 17.5 Noncitizen 20,634 7.2 8,935 43.3 Race and ethnicity White, alone or in combination 235,036 82.2 33,320 14.2 African American, alone or in combination 37,350 13.1 7,429 19.9 Hispanic, all combinations 39,384 13.8 12,756 32.4 Asian/S. Pacific Islander, alone or in combination 12,504 4.4 2,248 18.0 Gender Male 139,876 48.9 23,327 16.7 Female 146,057 51.1 20,246 13.9 Census region of residence Northeast 54,139 18.9 7,057 13.0 Midwest 64,581 22.6 7,533 11.7 South 101,800 35.6 17,773 17.5 West 65,413 22.9 11,210 17.1 aThe U.S. Census Bureau uses the concept of poverty universe to describe all respondents for whom information about income is available. NOTE: Fractions may not add to 100 percent because of rounding, because some people may report coverage from more than one source during the course of a year, and because respondents may fall into more than one reporting category, for example, in the case of race and ethnicity. SOURCES: Mills and Bhandari, 2003; U.S. Census Bureau, 2003a,b,c.

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165 APPENDIX A TABLE A.3 DISTRIBUTION OF UNINSURED POPULATION UNDER AGE 65 AND PROBABILITIES OF GOING WITHOUT COVERAGE, BY STATE OF RESIDENCE, 2002

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166 INSURING AMERICA’S HEALTH TABLE A.3 Distribution of Uninsured Population Under Age 65 and Probabilities of Going Without Coverage, by State of Residence, 2002 Distribution No. of Distribution No. in in Uninsured of Population Population (est.) Uninsured Uninsured (thousands) (%) (thousands) (%) Rate (%) U.S. total 251,700 100.0 43,316 100.0 17.2 Alabama 3,820 1.5 564 1.3 14.8 Alaska 588 0.2 117 0.3 20.0 Arizona 4,713 1.9 913 2.1 19.4 Arkansas 2,311 0.9 438 1.0 18.9 California 31,732 12.6 6,361 14.7 20.0 Colorado 4,033 1.6 717 1.7 17.8 Connecticut 2,885 1.1 355 0.8 12.3 Delaware 701 0.3 79 0.2 11.2 District of Columbia 504 0.2 73 0.2 14.5 Florida 13,675 5.4 2,816 6.5 20.6 Georgia 7,683 3.1 1,354 3.1 17.6 Hawaii 1,059 0.4 121 0.3 11.4 Idaho 1,151 0.5 233 0.5 20.2 Illinois 11,052 4.4 1,758 4.1 15.9 Indiana 5,362 2.1 794 1.8 14.8 Iowa 2,523 1.0 274 0.6 10.9 Kansas 2,346 0.9 280 0.6 11.9 Kentucky 3,526 1.4 546 1.3 15.5 Louisiana 3,914 1.6 814 1.9 20.8 Maine 1,073 0.4 144 0.3 13.4 Maryland 4,838 1.9 725 1.7 15.0 Massachusetts 5,615 2.2 637 1.5 11.3 Michigan 8,828 3.5 1,152 2.7 13.1 Minnesota 4,519 1.8 397 0.9 8.8 Mississippi 2,482 1.0 464 1.1 18.7 Missouri 4,905 1.9 646 1.5 13.2 Montana 774 0.3 139 0.3 17.9 Nebraska 1,492 0.6 173 0.4 11.6 Nevada 1,873 0.7 417 1.0 22.3 New Hampshire 1,116 0.4 125 0.3 11.2 New Jersey 7,470 3.0 1,181 2.7 15.8 New Mexico 1,594 0.6 385 0.9 24.2 New York 16,860 6.7 3,014 7.0 17.9 North Carolina 7,162 2.8 1,362 3.1 19.0 North Dakota 545 0.2 69 0.2 12.7 Ohio 9,892 3.9 1,331 3.1 13.5 Oklahoma 3,022 1.2 600 1.4 19.9 Oregon 3,106 1.2 511 1.2 16.5

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167 APPENDIX A TABLE A.3 Continued Distribution No. of Distribution No. in in Uninsured of Population Population (est.) Uninsured Uninsured (thousands) (%) (thousands) (%) Rate (%) Pennsylvania 10,359 4.1 1,377 3.2 13.3 Rhode Island 914 0.4 104 0.2 11.3 South Carolina 3,453 1.4 496 1.1 14.4 South Dakota 651 0.3 84 0.2 13.0 Tennessee 5,054 2.0 606 1.4 12.0 Texas 19,403 7.7 5,515 12.7 28.4 Utah 2,129 0.8 305 0.7 14.3 Vermont 543 0.2 66 0.2 12.2 Virginia 6,329 2.5 962 2.2 15.2 Washington 5,385 2.1 848 2.0 15.7 West Virginia 1,468 0.6 254 0.6 17.3 Wisconsin 4,838 1.9 535 1.2 11.0 Wyoming 430 0.2 86 0.2 20.0 SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, 2003d.

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168 INSURING AMERICA’S HEALTH TABLE A.4 Summary of National Surveys Compiling Information on Health Insurance Status of the Population (Estimates for Population Under Age 65) Survey and Frequency of Sponsor Survey Sample Community Tracking Study, Two-year cycle for first 32,000 households; Household Survey—Center for three rounds (1996–1997, 60,000 individuals in Studying Health System Change 1998–1999, 2000–2001); survey fourth round in 2003 Current Population Survey— Annual; health insurance- 80,000 households; U.S. Census Bureau related questions since 1980 130,000 individuals National Health Interview Survey Annual; health insurance 43,000 households —National Center for Health questions made part of each containing 106,000 Statistics, Centers for Disease year’s survey since 1997 individuals Control and Prevention National Survey of America’s First conducted in 1997, 44,000 households with Families—Urban Institute subsequent rounds in 106,000 individuals 1999 and 2002

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169 APPENDIX A Who Counts Estimated Uninsured Methods As “Uninsured” and Period Uninsured Telephone survey of Individuals reporting no 2000–2001 nationally representative insurance type asked to 33.8 million uninsured; sample in 60 randomly verify that they are uninsured at time of interview selected metropolitan uninsured (Cunningham, 2003) statistical areas (MSAs); more intensive sampling in 12 of these MSAs National probability sample Individuals reporting no 2002 with independent state-level insurance type asked to 43.3 million; uninsured samples allowing for state- verify that they are throughout prior calendar level estimates. uninsured year Telephone and face-to-face (Mills and Bhandari, 2003) interviews. One person answers on behalf of household members National probability sample Individuals reporting no 2002 with in-person interviews insurance type asked to 40.0 million; with each family as a group verify that they are uninsured at time of interview uninsured (CDC, 2003) Telephone survey of Individuals reporting no 1999 nationally representative insurance type asked to 36 million uninsured; sample of persons under 65, verify that they are uninsured at time of interview also representative for 13 uninsured (Haley and Zuckerman, 2003) states, with in-person interviews of a sample of households without telephones Continued

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170 INSURING AMERICA’S HEALTH TABLE A.4 Continued Survey and Frequency of Sponsor Survey Sample Panel surveys Medical Expenditure Panel New in 1996; new 32,122 persons in 2001 Survey—Agency for Healthcare panel annually. Household Component Research and Quality Comparable prior surveys: National Medical Expenditure Survey, 1987; National Medical Care Expenditure Survey, 1977 Survey of Income and Program New panel every 2–4 36,700 households in Participation—U.S. Census years since 1983. Monthly 2001 panel Bureau data based on quarterly interviews

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171 APPENDIX A Who Counts Estimated Uninsured Methods As “Uninsured” and Period Uninsured National probability sample. Residual—persons not 2001 Six interviews over 30 reporting any type of 31.3 million uninsured months. Computer-assisted coverage throughout calendar year, in-person and telephone 61.9 million uninsured at any interviews time during the year; reports provide status during a reference period of 3–5 months; data allow for monthly analysis (Rhoades and Cohen, 2003) In-person interviews with Residual—persons not 1998 each household member reporting any type of 21.1 million uninsured over age 15; adults asked coverage throughout calendar year, about children 56.8 million uninsured at any time during the year; months combined for annual estimate (Congressional Budget Office, 2003)