FIGURE 5-1 Stages and outcome of potential criminal encounters.

SOURCE: Adapted from Kleck (1997: Figure 7.1).

Although defining and measuring different types of gun use (both offensive and defensive) is not a simple matter, a typology similar to the one developed by Kleck may be a useful starting point (1997: Figure 7.1). Figure 5-1 provides a rough summary of the development of a violent or criminal encounter. Firearms and other weapons may be involved at different points in the development of a crime, from threats to realized crimes and injury. At each stage of a potentially threatening encounter, one may be

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